SDG 9 - Team Discussion


by Manju Muraleedharan - Saturday, 9 June 2018, 6:04 PM

Topic questions

  1. Share your local stories/programmes of sustainable industrialization and infrastructures.
    Try to conduct a comprehensive evaluation on their actual economic performance and direct/indirect influences towards the environment, people and community?
  2. What kind of role and actions that business sector perform in the process of sustainable industrialization and innovation?
    Are they playing the key or minor role under what business/financial model?
  3. Facing up with great technological threshold/barriers of digital-informatic and big-data industries, how can SA and SEA cities take advantages of this transformation power?
    Will this be an Zero-Sum game, or can the typical “winner-takes-all” dynamic be changed in the future?

Picture of Madhavan Parthasarathi
by Madhavan Parthasarathi - Saturday, 9 June 2018, 6:08 PM

Hi Manju

Delhi’s air quality once again is on the verge of turning ‘very poor’, raising health concerns among millions of people living in the national capital. The city clocking an Air Quality Index (AQI) above 300, which is “very poor”. Levels of particulate matter – PM10 and PM2.5 – have shot up drastically. The air quality is likely to deteriorate further in the coming years. But some people are hoping to change that.


Picture of Samreen Khan Ghauri
by Samreen Khan Ghauri - Sunday, 10 June 2018, 4:13 AM

My dear brother Madhavan! Thank you so much for sharing the video, What a wonderful idea to convert pollution into carbon and then utilize it as an ink for printing!  Bravo Delhi’s boys! 

I am wondering that how and when this kind of great initiative and startup will be operationalised and implemented thoroughly, if they succeed and commercially  advance and available in open market.

Secondly, I would say that the issue of air pollution is everywhere, special with mega or cosmopolitan cities which have huge traffic and adjourns industrial area, well in Pakistan, smog in winter season become major weather issue, that  causing enough difficulties to the citizen specially in Punjab, as they complain of breathing issue, throat infection and pneumonia. An increase in number of patients is being observed at hospitals, with particularly young and elderly people in majority among them.

Very interestingly, it has been reveals by NASA that Smog in Punjab, Pakistan, The cause for this smog seems to be wide scale crop burning, in the Indian Punjab. What is your finding and standing on the issue? Do you think, is that the main cause of Smog in Pakistan area adjourns with India?

Thanks and looking forward

Check this out, The NASA finding:

Picture of Amit Dahit
by Amit Dahit - Monday, 11 June 2018, 2:27 AM

Hi Samreen Khan Ghauri,

Thanks for sharing the problems in Pakistan.

Here, I want to share the progress of Goal 9 in 2016 and 2017:

 progress of Goal 9 in 2016:

  • Goal 9 encompasses three important aspects of sustainable development: infrastructure, industrialization and innovation. Infrastructure provides the basic physical systems and structures essential to the operation of a society or enterprise. Industrialization drives economic growth, creates job opportunities and thereby reduces income poverty. Innovation advances the technological capabilities of industrial sectors and prompts the development of new skills.
  • An important component of physical infrastructure is air shipping and air travel. In 2014, 45 per cent of all air passengers originated from developing regions; 55 per cent originated from developed regions. However, in the least developed countries, landlocked developing countries and small island developing States, air passenger volume was extremely low, making up only 0.8 per cent, 0.8 per cent and 1.4 per cent, respectively, of the global total. Similar patterns are found for freight volumes in air transit: the least developed countries, landlocked developing countries and small island developing States made up only 1.1 per cent, 0.9 per cent and 2.6 per cent of the global total, respectively, in 2014.
  • Manufacturing is a foundation of economic development, employment and social stability. In 2015, the share of manufacturing value added in terms of GDP of developed regions was estimated at 13 per cent, a decrease over the past decade owing largely to the increasing role of services in developed regions. In contrast, the share of manufacturing value added in GDP remained relatively stagnant for developing regions, increasing marginally from 19 per cent in 2005 to 21 per cent in 2015. Those values hide substantial differences, with manufacturing value added contributing over 31 per cent to GDP in Eastern Asia and 10 per cent or less in both sub-Saharan Africa and Oceania. The least developed countries face particular challenges in industrializing. Although those countries represent 13 per cent of the global population, they contribute less than 1 per cent of global manufacturing value added. Worldwide, about 500 million people are employed in manufacturing. While manufacturing job numbers have fallen in industrialized countries, they have steadily increased in developing countries. In the least developed countries, agricultural and traditional sectors remain the main sources of employment.
  • In developing countries, small-scale industries accounted for an estimated 15 per cent to 20 per cent of value added and 25 per cent to 30 per cent of total industrial employment in 2015. However, access to financial services in those countries remains a problem. Globally, the credit gap for small and medium enterprises (defined as having between 5 and 99 employees) was estimated at $3.2 trillion to $3.9 trillion in 2012. In emerging markets, between 45 per cent and 55 per cent of all small and medium enterprises are unserved or underserved by financial services.
  • As the structure of world economies shifts to less energy-intensive industries and countries implement policies for enhanced energy efficiency, almost all regions have shown a reduction in carbon intensity of GDP. Global carbon dioxide emissions per unit of value added showed a steady decline between 1990 and 2013, a decrease of about 30 per cent.
  • Innovation and the creation of new and more sustainable industries are spurred by investments in research and development. Global expenditure on research and development as a proportion of GDP stood at 1.7 per cent in 2013. However, this figure masks wide disparities. expenditure on research and development was 2.4 per cent of GDP for developed regions, 1.2 per cent for developing regions, and below 0.3 per cent for the least developed countries and landlocked developing countries. The number of researchers per 1 million inhabitants showed a similar pattern. While the global average was 1,083 researchers per 1 million inhabitants, the ratio ranged from 65 per 1 million in the least developed countries to 3,641 per 1 million in developed regions.
  • Total official flows for economic infrastructure in developing regions reached $59.5 billion in 2014. The main sectors receiving assistance were transport and energy.
  • Infrastructure and economic development also rely on information and communications technology. Mobile cellular services have spread rapidly around the world, allowing people in previously unconnected areas to join the global information society. By 2015, the percentage of the population living in areas covered by mobile broadband networks stood at 69 per cent globally. In rural areas, the share was only 29 per cent.

Source: Report of the Secretary-General, "Progress towards the Sustainable Development Goals", E/2016/75.

progress of Goal 9 in 2017:

  • Efficient transportation services generate employment and wealth and drive economic development. In 2015, the estimated global economic impact (both direct and indirect) of air transport was $2.7 trillion, equivalent to 3.5 per cent of global GDP. The least developed countries, landlocked developing countries and small island developing States represent far less air travel and freight volumes, with each country group accounting for only 1 per cent to 2.7 per cent of the global total.
  • Manufacturing is a principal driver of economic development, employment and social stability. Globally, manufacturing value added as a share of GDP increased from 15.3 per cent in 2005 to 16.2 per cent in 2016. In 2016, manufacturing value added per capita amounted to $4,621 in Europe and Northern America, compared to about $100 in the least developed countries.
  • As many countries move to more efficient and less energy-intensive industries, their emissions of carbon dioxide per unit of manufacturing value added are generally declining. From 2000 to 2014, Europe and Northern America reduced their emissions intensity by 36 per cent. All of the 10 largest manufacturing countries saw decreases in their emissions intensity. Such promising trends are not reflected in the global emissions intensity level, however, since a significant share of global manufacturing value added has moved to countries with generally higher intensity levels.
  • In 2014, investments in research and development stood at 1.7 per cent of global GDP, up from 1.5 per cent in 2000. Worldwide, there were 1,098 researchers per million inhabitants in 2014, ranging from 63 in the least developed countries to 3,500 in Europe and Northern America.
  • ODA for economic infrastructure in developing countries reached $57 billion in 2015, an increase of 32 per cent in real terms since 2010. The main recipient sectors were transport and energy ($19 billion each).
  • Manufacturing is increasingly shifting towards more technologically complex products. While medium- and high-tech products continue to dominate manufacturing production in industrialized economies (where they contribute about 80 per cent of total manufacturing output), the share has barely reached 10 per cent in least developed countries.
  • Mobile-cellular services have spread rapidly and have allowed people living in previously unconnected areas to join the global information society. In 2016, 95 per cent of the world’s population and 85 per cent of people in the least developed countries were covered by a mobile-cellular signal.

Source: Report of the Secretary-General, "Progress towards the Sustainable Development Goals", E/2017/66

Best Regards !

Mr. Amit Dahit

Picture of Amit Dahit
by Amit Dahit - Monday, 11 June 2018, 3:18 AM

Hi Samreen Khan Ghauri,

Infrastructure is essential to support growth and the development of employment opportunities. SDG 9 focuses on building resilient infrastructure as a basis for promoting growth through industrialisation and innovation, while ensuring that the opportunities remain inclusive. Investment is critical to growth and development. Investment in infrastructure such as transport, irrigation, energy, and information and communication technology will help achieve sustainable development thereby empowering communities in many countries. The improvement in rural infrastructure in Bangladesh began in the early 1980s with the initiation of a rural development strategy. Since then, the government has focused on the development of physical infrastructure, such as roads, markets and storage facilities, but the country has a large unmet demand for rural infrastructure. While improvements in rural infrastructure have been accelerating in the plains areas, the CHT remains far behind. Investment is needed in rural transport as well as supporting infrastructure such as irrigation facilities and water supplies. The region lacks an adequate road and trail network and improvement is needed to connect the many scattered rural areas with the growing regional hubs. The poor infrastructure conditions hinder the participation of ethnic minority people in economic activity. Development of infrastructure and of the institutional capacity needed to support rural development will help generate employment opportunities and enhance the livelihoods of the rural poor. The difficult terrain, remoteness, and scattered communities pose a huge challenge to building physical infrastructure and improving the delivery of basic services. Building infrastructure is both very expensive and environmentally risky and needs careful and sensitive planning. The development challenges facing the CHT include lack of funds to develop infrastructure; limited participation of local people in the planning, design, and implementation of development projects; and the immense task of rural road development in the fragile sociopolitical environment of the region.


Sustained investment in infrastructure and innovation are crucial drivers of economic growth and development. With over half the world population now living in cities, mass transport and renewable energy are becoming ever more important, as are the growth of new industries and information and communication technologies. Investment in infrastructure and innovation is one of 17 Global Goals that make up the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. An integrated approach is crucial for progress across the multiple goals.

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Technological progress is also key to finding lasting solutions to both economic and environmental challenges, such as providing new jobs and promoting energy efficiency. Promoting sustainable industries, and investing in scientific research and innovation, are all important ways to facilitate sustainable development.More than 4 billion people still do not have access to the Internet, and 90 percent are from the developing world. Bridging this digital divide is crucial to ensure equal access to information and knowledge, and as a consequence foster innovation and entrepreneurship. 

Best Regards !

Amit Dahit

Picture of Krishna Bahadur Khadka
by Krishna Bahadur Khadka - Wednesday, 13 June 2018, 1:27 AM

Hi Amit and all, 

Your post about Mahabir Pun reminds me about his latest innovation of medical drone. He built a drone to supply medical items in the rural area where road transport is not easily accessible or will take more time to reach via road.

I have shared the video and link to know more about his greatest innovation.

Picture of Udval Oyunsaikhan
by Udval Oyunsaikhan - Thursday, 14 June 2018, 4:19 PM
Interesting! Drones are used in so many ways for social good from aid and medicine delivery to catching illegal logging and anti-pouching wild life. But I think what is even surprising is they were used as curbing pollution. 

China is infamous for its smog and historic levels of air pollution, but in 2014 it set out to curb the problem — with a drone. The Parafoil Plane was created by the Aviation Industry Corp of China and tied to a gliding parachute, was equipped with a chemical catalyst to cut through smog and created artificial wind currents to reduce air pollution. Later that year, China's Ministry of Environmental Protection launched a series of drones to detect illegal nighttime emissions from factories. 

Picture of Madhavan Parthasarathi
by Madhavan Parthasarathi - Friday, 15 June 2018, 3:21 PM

Dear Samreen,

I am glad that we have an effective platform to discuss ‘Smog Crisis'- A growing Cross Boundary Problem between India and Pakistan.

To eliminate the problem of smog crisis (more than 500,000 Indians and Pakistani die every year due to air pollution), what we need is a regional solution that is transboundary in nature. I am delighted to read the following (

"Taking the lead, a few days back the Punjab government in Pakistan had tweeted to Punjab’s Chief Minister in India: “Environmental hazards threaten our people and habitat. Let us act fast to counter it.”

The bilateral cooperation on air quality between India and Pakistan will be strengthening the existing bond between the two countries and I hope it will eliminate most of the conflictual situations too.

Rest of the world has set examples for us:

"The United States has air quality cooperation agreements with its neighbouring Canada and Mexico. Similarly, the countries of European Union have an agreement, which sets a national limit on the emission of air pollutants. Scandinavian countries have developed strong cooperation with East European countries in the areas of air and water quality in the Baltic."

So it's our turn to act together.

The solution for the smog crisis in our countries' context is "Alternative Uses of Crop Stubble".

Please find the attached link.




by Manju Muraleedharan - Friday, 15 June 2018, 5:10 PM

Dear Samreen and Madhavan,


I found an interesting video that shows the four feasible alternatives to crop stubble burning.


1. Awareness about machines, 2. Availability of machines, 3. Affordability of machines


1. Chopper, Rake, and Baler

(After the harvest use the chopper to slash the crop residue.  Use the rake to put everything in rows and use the baler to bundle the stubble.  These bales can be sold to a power plants, cardboard factories, diary owners- one can make money out of all these options.)

2. Turbo Happy Seeder (zero tillage)

(Leave the straw as it is and sow wheat in between.  The straw will get decomposed on its own)

3.Reversible Mould Board Plough

(Helps to burry the stubble into the soil. The idea is to feed the soil so that it feeds us.)

4. Straw Chopper

(After chopping, the straw can be used as silage for cattle.)

Solution number 2 and 3 are for those who want to use the large number of organic matter.


Picture of maria igrecia
by maria igrecia - Friday, 22 June 2018, 8:58 PM

hallo Madhavan, video you send is very good and useful, can reduce the existing air pollution.
In Indonesia there is also a tool to clean the dust. ie there is a car vacuum cleaner. this has also been going on for quite a while and the results are useful.

Picture of Brant Knützen
by Brant Knützen - Sunday, 10 June 2018, 10:30 AM

Hello LDC!

I saw this on the BBC and thought you should see it:

The grassroots movement that shut down an Indian copper plant -

I'm not familiar with the history of this copper smelting plant, but it would seem that it was not operated in a sustainable way, with regards to the pollution it creates for the community living around it.   What do you think?

How could this plant be operated in a more sustainable way?

Have you heard the acronym NIMBY?    This is a common issue happening all around the world, where a country needs an industry, but no one wants to have it set up "in my backyard"!   How can we find the balance between industrial needs and a healthy environment?


Picture of Soniya Suruli Raj
by Soniya Suruli Raj - Sunday, 10 June 2018, 11:46 PM

hi sir,

Refer to the link above to know the history of that copper smelting plant.

Traditionally known as “Pearl City” on account of the prevailing Pearl fish in the past in the area, Thoothukudi has a fascinating History. Thoothukudi became the citadel of freedom struggle in the early of the 20th century. It was in Thoothukudi that the illustrious patriot , V.O.Chidambaram established the first swadesi Stream Navigation Company, sailing the first steamer S.S.Gaelia to Thoothukudi on 1st June 1907.

Though it has many admirable things ,today it became more viral because of the sterlite issue.

As you said this copper smelting plant was not run in a sustainable way,

 (see this video which has proof for that,it is in our native language-Tamil,but subtitles can help you and it really shocks me if the data mentioned in the video are true)

And when we talk about industrial development, in developing countries there is a need for industrial development but I think too much of anything is good for nothing ,upto my knowledge Tuticorin is a small district and too much of industrial encroachment is not a good thing for both the humanity and the bio-diversity of that place.The following list shows the large scale enterprises in and around the city. Why is it necessary to built and allow to build these many industries in a small district.It might also be a major cause for the difficulty of the government to check whether it is functioning in a sustainable way.

One may tell that these industries boost employment opportunities but information prove that natives are not employed in a large scale there. Only outsiders are employed so that the exact issues happening inside are not conveyed out. Because it is a natural phenomena that only natives care for their land and for others it is just a news.

Here is a list of large scale sectors but there are also small scale industries and several others which are harming mother Earth in it's own way.


 1. Tuticorin Alkali Chemicals and Fertilizers Ltd. – Sulphates of Alumina ferric 

2. Travancore Chemicals and Manufacturing Co. Ltd., harbor construction Road,Tuticorin-Soda ash, heavy chemicals, ammonium chloride(fertilizer)

 3. Dharangadara Chemical Works Ltd, Sahupuram, Arumuganeri,Tiruchenurt.k- Caustic soda, liquid chlorine, Trichloroethylene, upgraded illuminate ,P.V Rexene

 4. The South India carbonic Gas Industries Ltd, Harbour construction Road,Tuticorin Manufacturing of carbonic oxide

 5. Southern Petrochemical Industries Corporation Ltd. (SPIC), Spic Nager, Tuticorin 17 

6. Lakshmi Mills Co. Ltd., Lakhsmipuram Post, Kovilpatti- Textile yarn 

7. Loyal Textile Mills Ltd 21/4 Mill Street, Kovilpatti-yarn and cloth 

8. The Tuticorin Spinning Mills Ltd., 106, Playamkottai road, Tuticorin – cotton yarn and thread 9. Madura Coats, Beach Road, Tuticorin. Cotton yarn and thread 

10. Heavy Water Plant, Tuticorin –Heavy Water 

11. Thoothukudi Thermal Power Station Tuticorin – Power 

12. Sterlite Industries (India) Ltd, Madurai bye Pass road, Sipcot, Industrial Complex, Tuticorin – Copper Smelting

 13. The Bharathi Co-op. Spinning Mills Ltd., Ettayapuram

 14. Shantha Marine Bio-Technologies (P) Ltd., Kallamozhi 

15. Kilburn Chemicals Ltd., SIPCOT Complex, Tuticorin

 16. Arasan Textile Mills (P) Ltd., Tuticorin 

17. Transworld Garnet India (P) Ltd., Kootudankadu

Picture of Samreen Khan Ghauri
by Samreen Khan Ghauri - Monday, 11 June 2018, 5:18 AM

Hello Brant!

Thanks for initiating some prolific discussion on community movement against industrialization  specifically NIMBY term.

Well in Pakistan, this sort of movement never come across at that momentum as I see in Tamil Nadu.  Due to lack of social moments against corporate sector, the small manufacturing unit get penetrated in heart of communities which causing hazardous environmental impact and threat to human life.  I think, people encourage specially social activist and media to come forth and make government/state accountable to pursue and implement the policy with favor of public. Only government have an authority to take steps and promote CSR (Corporate Social Responsibility) culture to save environment and improve socio-economic conditions of local community.



Picture of Amit Dahit
by Amit Dahit - Monday, 11 June 2018, 3:17 PM

Hi Everybody,

Greetings !

SDG 9 spans a wide range of aspects of infrastructure, industrialization and innovation. It has a cross-cutting focus on assisting poorer and more vulnerable groups to better access and benefit from the economic and market opportunities associated with infrastructure and industry, stimulating innovation and growth in these sectors, and enhancing the sustainability of the facilities and enterprises that are involved.

How does Green Key help to achieve Goal 9?

The Green Key programme promotes innovation and sustainable infrastructure in several ways:

  • Reduction in the consumption of water, heat and energy through the use of latest technologies such as energy-saving appliances (criteria category 7), water-saving technologies and devices (criteria category 4) and proper insulation of buildings (7.12, 7.24 & 7.25)
  • Promotion of renewable energy (criterion 7.16)
  • Support of local initiatives that i.a. promote sustainable infrastructure developments (11.4)
  • Promotion of sustainable transportation like public transportation or biking (criterion 3.6, 12.2, 12.3 & 13.10 

Green Key supports innovation within the areas of environmental management and awareness raising. It promotes inclusiveness and engagement of staff, guests and suppliers in working with sustainability at the establishments and in the surrounding community, while good practices are promoted through Green Key’s media for the inspiration of other businesses. Green Key actively promotes sustainable infrastructure within the areas of building and operation of its establishments, as well as the use of sustainable transportation.

Best Regards !

Amit Dahit

Picture of Amit Dahit
by Amit Dahit - Wednesday, 13 June 2018, 1:33 AM

Hi Everybody,

Sustainable Development Goal 9 addresses three important aspects of sustainable development: infrastructure, industrialization and innovation. Infrastructure provides the basic physical facilities essential to business and society; industrialization drives economic growth and job creation, thereby reducing income inequality; and innovation expands the technological capabilities of industrial sectors and leads to the development of new skills. 

Investments in infrastructure – transport, irrigation, energy and information and communication technology – are crucial to achieving sustainable development and empowering communities in many countries. It has long been recognized that growth in productivity and incomes, and improvements in health and education outcomes require investment in infrastructure.

Sustainable Development Goal 9 (SDG 9) is based on three interconnected pillars: infrastructure, industry and innovation. These pillars all share the objective of achieving socially inclusive and environmentally sustainable economic development. Realizing SDG 9 by 2030 will require overcoming resource constraints, building and strengthening developing countries’ capacities, and exploring innovative ways to solve development challenges, in order to build resilient infrastructure, promote sustainable industrialization and foster innovation. SDG 9 has approximately 20 targets and indicators related to its three pillars and is closely linked to other SDGs related to job creation, sustainable livelihoods, improved health, technology and skills development, gender equality, food security, green technologies and climate change.

SDG 9 is one of the SDGs that will be reviewed by the 2017 session of the High-level Political Forum on Sustainable Development (HLPF), which is convening under the theme ‘Eradicating poverty and promoting prosperity in a changing world’ from 10-19 July 2017. In addition to SDG 9, the HLPF will review six other SDGs: SDG 1 (no poverty), SDG 2 (zero hunger), SDG 3 (good health and well-being), SDG 5 (gender equality), SDG 14 (life below water), and SDG 17 (partnerships for the Goals).

Best Regards !

Amit Dahit

by Manju Muraleedharan - Wednesday, 13 June 2018, 2:38 AM

Hi Brant,

We can find the balance between industrial needs and a healthy environment. I will share articles related to it in my next post.  

My observation about Thoothukudi (Tuticorin) Sterlite Plant protestors is that they lost their trust in the Vedanta Sterlite's (a business unit of Vedanta Ltd, a subsidiary of London-based metals major Vedanta Resources Plc.) copper operations because of the following reasons: 

1.The plant was built within 14 km of the Gulf of Mannar. 

("Considering the ecological sensitivity of the Gulf of Mannar Biosphere reserve, the factory should be located 25 km from the Gulf of Mannar.)

2. Health issues like headache, coughing and choking

(On August 20, 1997, staff at Tamil Nadu Electricity Board's sub-station located across the Sterlite factory complained of headache, coughing and choking due to smoke emanating from the plant.  On May 5, 1997, women workers at Ramesh Flowers – a dry flowers manufacturing unit near Sterlite – fell sick and many fainted due to a gas leak form Sterlite.) 

3. Ground Water Pollution

(On January 2, 2001, Tuticorin residents complained to TNPCB about the release of toxic wastewater from Sterlite along with rainwater, following the heavy rains on November 21, November 24 and December 12, 2000. Sterlite's arsenic laced wastewater reportedly flooded the villages named Silverpuram, Meelavittan and Kaluthaikuttan tanks.")

4. Unlicensed production

(On November 16, 2004, TNPCB submitted its report confirming that the company had manufactured 1,64,236 tonnes that year against a permitted capacity of 70,000 tonnes.)

5. Crossing the permissible limits (emissions)

(On March 23, 2013, the air pollution measuring equipment on the chimney of Sterlite's Sulphuric Acid Plant – I recorded levels of sulphur dioxide nearly three times the permissible limits.)

So my observation is that it was not the NIMBY ATTITUDE of the people that led to the protest, but the practice of their fundamental rights to have access to clean water, land and air.  People allowed the plant and it has caused great danger to their lives and environment.


by Manju Muraleedharan - Friday, 15 June 2018, 2:21 PM

Hi Brant,

I believe by using REMEDIATION TECHNOLOGIES we can find the balance between industrial needs and  healthy environment.  This post is in the context of Smelting Plants.  Following a Tailor-made Remediation Strategy can help the Smelting Plants to function in an environmentally friendly way.

The company should focus on finding out remedies for the grave environmental and health issues created by the plant.  Regular studies should be conducted to eliminate the three types of contaminations created by the Smelting Plant.

1. Primary Contamination

(wastes from mining and smelting deposited near their origin. These include waste-rock, tailings and slag.)

2. Secondary Contamination affecting soils, ground waters, rivers and air 

(contamination generated through transportation of the primary contaminants away from site by rivers or through the atmosphere.)

3. Tertiary Contamination 

(occurring through re-mobilization of the deposits of by-products.)

I believe if the company and government strictly observe the following steps they can effect attitudinal changes in society.

1. The company (Smelting Plant) should produce transparent documents and reports on everyday basis, of emissions and tailing storage and all the activities related to the plant. It should be made available for the public.

2. For every process that causes damage to environment and health, the company, community and the government should work together and develop remediation plans and execute it on weekly basis.

3. Responsible Studies and Research should be conducted on the particular Smelting Plant's impact on health, and environment of the community.

4. At least once in six months medical reports or certificates of the community should be updated.

5.The local community should be given training to develop their skill set to receive the maximum job opportunities created by the Plant.

I have attached an article on remediation strategies for historical mining and smelting sites.


Picture of Anish Shrestha
by Anish Shrestha - Saturday, 16 June 2018, 3:37 AM

Dear Brant,

Thank you for your informative posts and continually engaging us in development discourses. It is not only widening the scope of our knowledge but also increasing our interaction capacities and level. It has also been an great opportunity to learn and grow to advocate for SDGs. 

I have been actively participating in social youth activism from more than half decade and have found that Industry, Innovation and Infrastructure is nothing for the country if we have stable and visionary government in the nation. The Industry, Innovation and Infrastructure building have to be policy driven and should be based according to the need, situation and best feasibility for the local community and nation. 

Whatever plan and strategy for Industry, Innovation and Infrastructure. It have to be sustainable and long term forecast. We can not plan to make a one lane road this year and suddenly widen it to four lane road the next year because being sustainable means the best use of available resources keeping in the mind what we do should match with what we have at the moment. This should relate to maximize the land, money and man power we can afford and use considering it to left enough to even save resources for coming generation like ever decreasing limited fertile land we have.

I personally think for realization and attainment of SDG 9 hugely depends and should be based on youth populations because industry needs youth to manage and run it. Youth needs industry for job and employment. Thus Industry, Innovation and Infrastructure directly relates with decent work and economic growth. We have to target our mission to innovation in Sustainable Tourism and environment friendly industry and infrastructure for inclusive development. 

Our country Nepal has now restructured the political division of the country and is following Federal parliamentary republic ruling system. This tops our expectation for the government to speedy development of Industry, Innovation and Infrastructure to conquer dream of economic and social transformation with our new powerful government motto Sambriddha Nepal, Sukhi Nepali (Prosper Nepal, Happy Nepali)

I together with my other friend and colleagues recent Saturday, 09 June 2018 had a very fruitful meeting with The Honorable Chief Minister of Province No. 04, Nepal Mr. Prithivi Subba Gurung at his official residence in Provincial Capital at Pokhara, Nepal on promotion of Human Rights and SDGs in this province.

The Honorable Chief Minister shared his vision and working plan on promoting sustainable tourism and fast track development of Industry, Innovation and Infrastructure for attainment of SDGs in the province by 2030.

Your's Truly,


Picture of Soney Rai
by Soney Rai - Saturday, 23 June 2018, 1:56 AM

Hello Brant,

Thank you for introducing so many new words to us and making us very interactive and interesting on SDG course. I would like to share a story related to NIMBY happened in my home country Nepal.

Okharpauwa in Nuwakot district is the nearest and oldest landfill site plan of Kathmandu valley’s waste. Many times a group of people from Okharpauwa Village Development Committee (VDC), has protested the Kathmandu Metropolitan City’s (KMC) to dispose the garbage in the landfill site in an organized way. This group has demanded deals and questioned the government’s legitimacy to support the welfare of the community because the waste has caused serious health risks to the public. Once for an undefined period residents of Okharpauwa have prevented waste containers from disposing waste in dumping site, until their demands are noticed.

The main problem is that we have poor consultation among “all the stakeholders” mainly because we have a trend that few “Mr Know Alls” of the village usually make the decision on behalf of all the locals. Likewise, our government (or the concerned authority) seldom listens to the suggestions of independent specialists. I think, we can find the balance between industrial needs and a healthy environment first when the government and people become responsible and participative for the betterment of the nation.



Picture of Maheswari Bala
by Maheswari Bala - Thursday, 14 June 2018, 1:27 AM

Hi all, 

I recently came across an article which spoke about Indian Railways' installation of plastic bottle crushers. Every time a person inserts a plastic bottle into the machine, he/she is expected to enter in their mobile number in the machine and would immediately get a cash back of Rs. 5 in their Paytm e-wallet. 

The main focus of this initiative by the Indian Railways is to reduce plastic pollution within the premises of the Railway Stations which would also support India's plan to go plastic-free by 2022, the vision of India's Prime Minister, Narendra Modi.

I believe that this is a very good innovative initiation which would encourage people to dispose plastic in the right way and lead them to minimize and eventually quit the usage of plastic.



Picture of Soney Rai
by Soney Rai - Thursday, 21 June 2018, 6:39 PM

Hi everyone,

I would like to share a story of Xavier Peter, the fisherman from Kerala, India. He and his fishermen friends initiated the idea to collect plastic waste from ocean while they fishing and recycle it as it was a crucial problem seen from decades. This approach has help to clean the big water sources like ocean and able to save the lives of thousands of water creatures and plants.

They have also successfully established first-ever recycling center in the region, to clean, sort and process all the sea-tossed plastic materials. Till now, they have collected about a 65 metric tons (71 short tons) of plastic waste. This helped to grab an interest of fishing communities, state minister of fisheries, and government and come up with better solution to make a sustainable communities and industries.

Picture of Maheswari Bala
by Maheswari Bala - Friday, 15 June 2018, 9:41 PM

Hi everyone, 

As far as SDG 9 is concerned in the context of India, many projects, schemes, plans have been designed and executed in the past. Some fine examples would be Make in India, Digital India etc. In this post, I would like to highlight the Three Year Action Agenda (2017-18 to 2019-20) prepared by NITI Aayog (National Intitution for Transforming India). This agenda proposes for changes in policies and programmes that are to be implemented in these three years. 

The Agenda has a ten-step plan which will concetrate on the following aspects:

  • doubling farmer income
  • creating high-productivity jobs
  • safer roads, better infrastructure
  • digital india
  • becoming a global soft power
  • regional development (Urban Development , Rural Transformation, Regional Strategies)
  • addressing government and judiciary
  • developing skills, building an inclusive society
  • making a healthy India
  • sustainability of environment, forests, water resources
The following link gives detailed information on the Three Year Action Agenda: 



Picture of Maheswari Bala
by Maheswari Bala - Friday, 15 June 2018, 10:18 PM

Hi all,

One of the most important areas that needs special attention as far as sustainable industries are concerned is air pollution. Recntly, I came across an innovatve technology known as Smog Free Tower which removes carbon particles from air that can be later compressed and converted into jewellery. This technology is designed by Daan Roosegaarde who says:

"By charging the Smog Free Tower with a small positive current, an electrode will send positive ions into the air. These ions will attach themselves to fine dust particles. A negatively charged surface -the counter electrode- will then draw the positive ions in, together with the fine dust particles. The fine dust that would normally harm us, is collected together with the ions and stored inside of the tower. This technology manages to capture ultra-fine smog particles which regular filter systems fail to do."



Picture of Maheswari Bala
by Maheswari Bala - Saturday, 16 June 2018, 12:20 AM

Hi all,

Improved transport facility is one of the infrastructural dimensions that India needs to concentrate upon. The government realises this need and India's transport infrastructure is expected to grow over the upcoming years. Allocations have been made to NHA (National Highways Authority) and IR (Indian Railways) to support significant expansion plans. 

Parallely, the project for solar roads has been proposed by NDMC (New Delhi Municipal Council). The idea is in itself is great, but the when the execution of the idea came, NDMC realised that there are certain hurdles like skidding due to glass pavements, and leakage of water and dirt under them which if not cleaned properly would not generate energy as expected. An offical in NDMC points out that Indian roads are not designed like how they are done in the developed countries. So the idea of solar roads may be too far fetched for India he says (other things like huge cost investment, optimal solar capture, import cost have to be taken into consideration as well).

On the contrary, an urban infrastructure planning expert claims that,  

“Any new project is bound to have hiccups. Solar-powered infrastructural concepts are getting success in many areas across the country, which can be the case here as well provided it is implemented after being carefully thought out. We should not leave any stone unturned (to make the project a success). Although there has been international criticism regarding this solar road project, but an attempt should be made.”

In the context of India, it is very essential that the government concentrates more upon strengthening the available facilities and on delivering qualitative services to the public so as to adopt innovative technology to upgrade the country when necessary.


Image result for solar roads in india


Picture of Soniya Suruli Raj
by Soniya Suruli Raj - Tuesday, 19 June 2018, 12:21 AM

Hi everyone,

The following video shows some techniques to reduce CO2 emission in power plants and how successful it is in two other countries.


Picture of Kresno Widyatmoko
by Kresno Widyatmoko - Saturday, 7 July 2018, 1:00 PM
Your CO2 gas filtering technique is great. But in Indonesia there are often factories that violate the rules of waste, especially air pollution, because the factory has not installed an air filter on Their chimney, so the people around often do demonstrations against the factory. So that will be closed their efforts by the government. Therefore, air filtering of factories as well as steam power plants is very important besides the environment and surrounding communities. 
Picture of Soniya Suruli Raj
by Soniya Suruli Raj - Tuesday, 19 June 2018, 12:49 AM

Hi everyone,

This video tells about the futuristic construction technologies such as,

Self healing concrete,

Carbon Nanotubes,

Permeable Concrete,

Transparent Aluminium,

Aerogel insulation,

Temperature-reactive tiles,

Robot Swarm construction,

3-D Printed houses,

Smart roads and 

Building with CO2.

Picture of Soniya Suruli Raj
by Soniya Suruli Raj - Tuesday, 19 June 2018, 1:00 AM

Found another inspiring video!

Organic concrete - In which algae is used in binding rock and sand.

Picture of Brant Knützen
by Brant Knützen - Tuesday, 19 June 2018, 9:33 AM
Many of the sustainability issues revolve around problems associated with a recent surge in urbanization.

As poor people flock to cities looking for economic opportunities, they strain the ability of the city to support the sudden demand for increased housing, sewage, trash, and other infrastructure requirements.

On the other hand, more and more educated people in developed countries are realizing that they can work from home via the Internet, and companies are recognizing the reduced cost for office space.   In addition, the decrease in commuting to city offices results in a huge reduction in the production of pollution and greenhouse gases.

I have been wondering when this trend would result in a move back to the small towns, where clean air and lower population density result in a better quality of life.  Yesterday I read an article in the BBC which discusses the "Third Wave of the Internet" in the United States:


Internet pioneer Steve Case, co-founder of AOL, says the future looks bright.

"I believe that we are entering the Third Wave of the internet, a period in which entrepreneurs will leverage technology to revolutionise major sectors of the economy - healthcare, financial services, agriculture and others," he says.

These deep, structural changes and bursts of creativity appear to be especially evident in cities and towns in the Midwest, long derided as "flyover country".

Now it's more like "flying back home country" as thousands of people return to their hometowns from bigger coastal cities, bringing with them new ideas and a drive to succeed.


What do you think, LDC?    Would a trend of educated people moving back to their hometowns in India result in a more sustainable model of industrialization, or perhaps "post-industrialization" might be a better term?


by Manju Muraleedharan - Wednesday, 20 June 2018, 12:45 PM

Hi Brant,

I think “Post-industrialisation” would be the ideal term. 

SKILL Foods company in India is the best example of this. 

“Himalay Verma did his schooling from The Doon School, Dehradun, graduated from IIT-Roorkee and then went on to do his masters in architecture from Cornell University, USA. After that, he worked as an architect and planner from 2000 till 2009. But through it all, Verma kept alive his desire to work for the people of Banka, his native place in rural Bihar.”

 In 2009 he moved to Siljori in Banka district and took some loans and started his company, SKILL Foods, which is based on the ‘farm-to-plate’ concept. The company is involved in every stage of food production—procurement from farmers, storage, primary, secondary and tertiary processing, and sales and marketing—till it reaches a consumer’s plate. 

The significance of SKILL Foods:

“In SKILL Foods, value addition occurs at the place of production itself with the full involvement of growers, thereby benefitting the farmers financially. At present, SKILL Foods employs more than 300 people, mostly locals.

“Banka is the third-most underdeveloped district in the country.”

We have more people like him (Poonam Jain, Ambarish Soni, Poirei Sanasam, Nishant Singh, and Shalini Dam) who set examples for us.

The Union  Government recently approved a scheme named ‘India BPO Promotion Scheme’, envisaged under the Digital India Programme, with an outlay of about Rs 493 crore. 

“Under the scheme, around 190 new BPOs—with a combined seating capacity of 1.25 lakh employees (per shift)—are slated to come up in the smaller pockets of the country. Tata Consultancy Services has already opened a centre in Patna and will follow it up with another in Varanasi. Other companies are opening up BPOs in places like Allahabad, Bareilly, Ghazipur, Lucknow and Siliguri.”


Picture of Brant Knützen
Solar Sahelis
by Brant Knützen - Friday, 22 June 2018, 4:32 PM

Hello Manju and LDC, 

Yes, I think the article you shared titled "Why professionals are opting to move back to their hometowns" is very applicable, and hopefully it indicates a new trend which will reduce the pressure of mass relocation to urban environments!

I saw a BBC article today about "Solar Sahelis" in Rajastan I thought you might find applicable:

Could this type of marketing as a social enterprise help fund further development of Lady Doak College campus?

Would establishing LDC as a pioneer in the field of renewable power raise the public profile of the college?

Perhaps LDC could host seminars on campus, and have staff and students do product demonstrations in the surrounding area to publicize the technologies?


Santosh Kanwar pitching to prospective customers

Picture of Anish Shrestha
Re: Solar Sahelis
by Anish Shrestha - Friday, 22 June 2018, 11:43 PM
Dear Brant,

Hi ! 

In 2015, Nepal joined other members of the United Nations in adopting the global sustainable development (SDGs) goals that follow the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) as the international development targets. This report gives the preliminary findings of a review of the enabling environment, institutional mechanisms, systems to generate evidences if its periodic achievements, challenges ahead, progress and preparation for effectively implementing SDGs friendly intervention in Nepal The review was carried out through a consultative process.

The Enabling Environment The Constitution of Nepal (2015) guarantees inclusive socio-economic and political development, the building of an egalitarian and pluralistic society and the elimination of all forms of discrimination. This Constitution is the main guiding document for all new policies, plans and programmes, and other interventions to implement the aspiration of the SDGs that ‘no one is left behind’. The government has started to mainstream the SDGs into national planning and budgeting systems.

The Fourteenth Plan (2016/17–2018/19) which has in-built result framework, internalizes key aspects of SDGs through systematic integration of SDGs in the periodic plans needs rigorous works which the country has already initiated. In addition, the annual programmes and budgets of 2016/17 and 2017/18 have been aligned with the SDGs by introducing SDGs coding to each and every programme. However, since the new provincial and local government levels are just formed, SDGs are yet to be fully aligned and incorporated at the sub-national level planning and budgeting processes.

The main national targets for SDG 9 are to increase road density to 1.5 km per square km and paved road density to 0.25 km per square km and to connect all districts, municipalities and rural municipalities to the national road network. In industries, the target by 2030 is to increase the share of employment to 25 percent; within the subset of manufacturing, employment is to reach 13 percent.

Nepal has improved its infrastructure. The length of roads reached 82,412 km in 2016 of which 14 percent was black-topped, 23 percent graveled and 63 percent earthen. The road density was 0.44 km/sq2 in 2015/16. And 51.4 percent of people have access to a paved road within 30 minutes’ walk. The construction of railroads has begun. Connectivity by air transport is improving. Nepal has 33 airports in operation and 25 domestic private airlines and 26 international airlines operating flights in and to Nepal. The country’s tourism infrastructure is improving with 1,073 tourist standard hotels. Nepal has greatly improved its information and communication technology infrastructure as the density of telephone users reached 110 percent. In 2016, the share of industry in GDP was 15 percent, and manufacturing value added as a proportion of GDP was 6.5 percent.

Building on the gains so far, the challenge for Nepal is to swiftly complete the unfinished agenda of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), and embrace a much more ambitious aspiration of fulfilling the SDGs. Furthermore, Nepal expects to become a vibrant middle-income country by 2030. However, the country is resource constrained, and it needs to forge a diverse alliance for SDGs among government, business and civil society to end poverty and create a life of dignity and opportunity for all in Nepal.

Your's Sincerely,


Re: Solar Sahelis
by Manju Muraleedharan - Saturday, 23 June 2018, 2:58 PM

Dear Brant,

Solar Saheli Campaign really helps in empowering the rural women.  LDC organises many campaigns as part of the Part V and LFE Programmes. Please find the reports attached.