SDG 13 - Team Discussion

Ger Community Mapping Center

Picture of Brant Knützen
Ger Community Mapping Center
by Brant Knützen - Monday, 4 June 2018, 9:34 AM

Topic questions

  1. Share the impacts of global climate change on your community. 
    Identify the main challenges and critical areas that are most vulnerable and immediate actions are needed to address local impacts.
  2. From global to local, as well as from local to global.
    Learn about other places’ best practices all over the world and what can SA, SEA cases provide to the world?
  3. Dynamics and mechanism. 
    What are the decisive driving forces and effective collaboration frameworks of the local, national and international actions?
    Are there any conflicts and compromises during the action process?

Picture of Tsenguun Tumurkhuyag
Re: Ger Community Mapping Center
by Tsenguun Tumurkhuyag - Saturday, 9 June 2018, 3:38 PM

Climate change trends in Mongolia

Mongolia’s climate is characterized by extreme fluctuations in both temperature and precipitation, differences accentuated by the country’s expanse and topographical diversity. The country has six ecological zones ranging from high mountain alpine systems in the north and east to the vast Gobi Desert in the south. 

The country’s diverse climate makes it uniquely vulnerable to the impacts of climate change. This diversity leads to a wide range of extreme climate-related events, often occurring within a single year, including dzuds, dust storms, flash floods, and steppe and forest fires. The number of extreme weather events doubled in the last 20 years, and is expected to continue to increase over the coming decades.

In Mongolia climate change threatens the livelihoods of many of its citizens, 40 percent of whom are dependent on animal husbandry and rainfed agriculture. Though historically known for an extreme range of seasonal variation in temperature and precipitation, atmospheric conditions in Mongolia have become progressively more erratic. 

Since 1940, Mongolia has witnessed a 2.14°C rise in average annual temperatures, twice the global average over the same period. It is projected to witness an additional 2-3° C rise in temperature by 2050. Mongolia ranked on German Watch’s 2014 Climate Risk Index as the eighth most vulnerable country to the impacts of extreme weather. 

Coinciding with the recorded temperature rise is a greater variability in precipitation levels and occurrence; summer rainfall has been observed to be decreasing while winter precipitation increasing. Precipitation are less frequent and more intense, correlating with more extreme weather including droughts and harsh winters known as dzuds. In addition, dust storms, forest fires and flooding are all growing problems at the national level. 

Picture of Abraham Wahyu Nugroho
Re: Ger Community Mapping Center
by Abraham Wahyu Nugroho - Tuesday, 12 June 2018, 11:58 PM

Hi Tsenguun,

Comparison of Climate Change in Semarang, Indonesia

In Semarang, We also face climate change hazard, such as drought, land subsidence and floods. Based on reports which is organized by United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) and International Institute for Environment and Development (IIED) in 2013, vulnerability area in Semarang has been identified: 

1. Lowland regions affected by coastal flooding and sea level rise, 

2.  Settlement areas located in riverbeds exposed to flooding

3. Hilly areas exposed to high winds 

4. Areas affected by land movement and landslides

5. Residential areas on the city outskirts distant from water




Picture of Tsenguun Tumurkhuyag
Re: Ger Community Mapping Center
by Tsenguun Tumurkhuyag - Saturday, 9 June 2018, 3:44 PM

Climate change impacts

Current estimates of environmental degradation in Mongolia, mainly based on remote sensing, point to sociopolitical as well as climatic causes; however, there is little scientific consensus on the extent or causes of recent rangeland changes in Mongolia. Further, the results of some field studies have not been consistent with conclusions from remote-sensing studies. Nevertheless, there have been a number of rigorous studies conducted related to climate change’s impacts which point to alarming trends in the conditions of surface water and precipitation across Mongolia, as well as grassland deterioration.

In 2002, it was estimated that over 70% of Mongolia’s total territory was degraded relative to its natural state.

The study concluded that “(1) almost the entire Mongolian steppe region experienced significant vegetation biomass declines between 1988 and 2008; (2) about 60% of the decline can be attributed to climate trends: in particular, decreasing precipitation and increasing temperature; and (3) the dramatic increase in goat numbers and grassland burning is likely to account for most of the remaining decline.” A separate study found an increase in temperature correlated with a projected decreased weight for livestock, with the same level of pasture biomass, suggesting that sheep in particular become stressed under higher temperatures associated with climate change. 

The Ministry of Nature, Environment and Tourism conducted a surface water inventory in 2007. The survey revealed 852 rivers and streams (out of 5128), 2277 springs (out of 9306), and 1181 lakes and ponds (out of 3747 water bodies) have disappeared since the previous survey in 2003. Changes in precipitation are largely to blame, with changes in water usage also part of the issue. As one study found, “droughts and the frequency of extreme events will likely increase. Other studies (AIACC, 2006) have also documented that drought has almost doubled in frequency during the last 60 years and that the worst droughts on record (over 50–70% of the country) have occurred during the last decade.”

Picture of Tsenguun Tumurkhuyag
Re: Ger Community Mapping Center
by Tsenguun Tumurkhuyag - Saturday, 9 June 2018, 3:50 PM

Adaptive capacity

Studies focusing on the adaptive strategies of Mongolians to successfully overcome the challenges presented by climate change have mainly centered on the interactions between herders and rangelands. The main types of adaptive strategies for nomadic pastoralists to deal with the impacts of a changing climate include: 1) mobility, 2) storage, 3) diversification, 4) communal pooling and 5) community-based reciprocity and exchange. 


CEMAATERR program has been launched in November 2016 with the financial support of French Agency of Development. It involves 4 areas (Collines Province in Benin, Kampong Speu Province in Cambodia, Chefchaouen City in Morocco and Arkanghaï Province in Mongolia), particularly vulnerable to climate change, which has a major impact on local livelihoods in both short and longer term.  

In the Mongolian Province of Arkanghaï, the territorial planning process taking into consideration climate change challenges is expected to favor local authorities (Aimag and Sum) involvement through a multi-scale process. This process will rely on a participatory multisector diagnosis led by GERES in collaboration with Ger Community Mapping Center NGO. This planning method will result in the identification of priority policy areas and pilot projects meeting climate change adaptation and mitigation issues, mainly in natural resources management, habitat and energy efficiency sectors.  

Picture of Tsenguun Tumurkhuyag
Re: Ger Community Mapping Center
by Tsenguun Tumurkhuyag - Saturday, 9 June 2018, 4:03 PM

Please see attached presentation on Climate Change in Mongolia