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Despite having only 0.4 percent of the total global population and being responsible for only 0.025 percent of total GHG emissions in the world,Nepal will be affected disproportionately, especially from increasing atmospheric temperature. Changes in the annual rainfall cycle, intense rainfall and longer droughts have been observed. Similarly, both days and nights are presently warmer. The number of days with 100 mm of heavy rainfall is increasing. The timing and duration of rainfall is changing. As glaciers recede from rapid snow and ice melting, glacier lakes are expanding.The adverse impacts of climate change have been noticed in agriculture and food security, water resources, forests and biodiversity, health, tourism and infrastructures. Climate-induced disasters and other effects have caused damages and losses to life, property, and livelihoods. Millions of Nepalese are estimated to be at risk to climate change. In the past 90 years, a glacier in the Sagarmatha region has receded 330 feet vertically. Because of glacier melting, new glacier lakes have formed. Although there will be an increase in river flows untill 2030, this is projected to decrease significantly by the end of this century. The Earth’s climate is changing, with severe consequences for our daily lives and the resilience of our countries. Climate change is disrupting national economies, People are experiencing changing weather patterns, rising sea levels, and extreme weather events. Greenhouse gas emissions from human activities driving this change continue to rise. They are now at their highest levels in history. From 1880 to 2012, the average global temperature increased by 0.85 degrees C. To put this into perspective, for each one degree of temperature increase, grain yields decline by about 5%. Between 1981 and 2002, maize, wheat and other major crops experienced significant yield reductions at the global level of 40 mega tonnes per year due to the warmer climate. From 1901 to 2010, the global average sea level rose by 19 cm as oceans expanded due to warming and ice melt. Global emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2) have increased by almost 50% since 1990 with emissions increasing more quickly between 2000 and 2010 than in each of the three previous decades.
There is no country in the world that is not seeing first-hand the drastic effects of climate change. Greenhouse gas emissions continue to rise, and are now more than 50 percent higher than their 1990 level. Further, global warming is causing long-lasting changes to our climate system, which threatens irreversible consequences if we do not take action now.
The annual average losses from just earthquakes, tsunamis, tropical cyclones and flooding count in the hundreds of billions of dollars, requiring an investment of US$ 6 billion annually in disaster risk management alone. The goal aims to mobilize $100 billion annually by 2020 to address the needs of developing countries and help mitigate climate-related disasters.
“Temperature is increasing; heavy precipitation days are increasing while number of rainy days is decreasing. With its limited resources, capacity, and finance it becomes expensive for Nepal for adaptation in various sector such as water, energy, agriculture, tourism, energy, infrastructure, biodiversity and mitigation to Climate Chang See more at: http://southasiajournal.net/climate-change-impact-in-nepal/.
The most two affected sectors which is brining economic loss are agriculture and tourism while impact in water is bringing water scarcity which directly affecting health due to Climate Change in Nepal. - See more at: http://southasiajournal.net/climate-change-impact-in-nepal/
1. Impacts in Tourism sectors: In 2013, avalanches killed 16 people in Mt. Everest that was associate with climate change. In 2012, more than 60 people, three Ukrainian tourists among them, were killed in the popular Mount Annapurna region in western Nepal. - See more at: http://southasiajournal.net/climate-change-impact-in-nepal/. Not only mountains the cities like Pokhara, Chitwan are one among tourist place. These places are equally having impact of climate change. In 2012, Pokhara experienced devastating flood originated from Glacier Lake Outburst Flood. While in Chitwan, People are experiencing warmer days than ever. So the number of the tourist ar also decrasing day by day. See more at: http://southasiajournal.net/climate-change-impact-in-nepal/.
Impacts in Agriculture: Geographically, Nepal is divided into three east-west ecological zones: the northern range – the mountain, the mid-range – hill and the southern range – terai (flat land). The changing climate has delayed the monsoon rendering thousands of hectares of farm land fallow and reducing the productivity of the land due to lack of rain according to Regmi & Adhikari, 2007. The impact of Climate Change is severe in context of Nepalese farmers because of the country‘s geographical and climatic conditions, and lack of access to resources to cope with the changing climate. Agriculture and food security is one of priority in adaptation to climate change in Nepal. Where 66 percent of people depend on agriculture and 33 percent of revenue is based on it. “Agriculture is a sector where too much or less, both type of rainfall will impact in food security - See more at: http://southasiajournal.net/climate-change-impact-in-nepal/.
Impacts in Water: A research published in internal journal for water resources development shows a gradual slight decrease in annual average rainfall, by 0.9% of baseline in the 2020s, 1.4% in the 2055s and 3.0% in the 2080s. There is a clear increase in rainfall during the early winter months (120% of baseline for November and 102% for December by the 2080s), and a small increase in spring and early summer, but a decrease in late winter, mid-to-late summer, and autumn. These results indicate that farmers will need to adapt to changing rainfall patterns. Cities like Kathmandu, Bhaktapur, patan, are facing severe scarcity of water. These places have stone spout and pond which is the source water and recharge system in areas. But these are drying out. According to resident of Bhaktapur, It has only been ten to fifteen years that these water resources were drying but it has completely fried by now. - See more at: http://southasiajournal.net/climate-change-impact-in-nepal/. According to my research paper, reseacrh in three places of Mountain, hilly and terai explains the changes in precipitation pattern over last 20 years that has been in decreasing trend.
Impacts in Health: According to Shrestha et al.(2011), the rise in temperature was greater at the higher altitudes and increasing in temperature were more pronounced in the winter. It indicated that the warming was more observed in the higher altitude as compared to Terai belts. Either directly or indirectly, the impacts of Climate Change affect human health. In Nepal, every year, many people die and thousands become homeless and suffer from various diseases and injuries due to sudden occurrence of disasters and epidemic diseases. In a recent 2009 epidemic of diarrhea and cholera in mid-western Nepal more than 200 people lost their lives due to warm climate. Drought, intense rainfall and flooding can also contribute to epidemics of waterborne infectious diseases - See more at: http://southasiajournal.net/climate-change-impact-in-nepal/.
The main challenges and critical areas that are most vulnerable and immediate actions are needed to address local impacts.
National efforts to make the socio-economic sectors climate-resilient is a great
challenge due to the lack of knowledge, scientific data and information related to the
science of climate change and its impact on different geographical and socio-economic
development sectors and use of climate modelling to assess likely impacts.
b) It is also a challenge to assess the effects and likely impacts of climate change, to
identify the vulnerable sectors and enhance their adaptive capacity, and to develop a
mechanism for reducing GHG emissions.
c) It is necessary to create an enabling environment for technical and financial
opportunities at the national and international level in the process of addressing
climate change impacts.
d) It is equally necessary to make the country's socio-economic development climatefriendly,
and to integrate climate change aspects into policies, laws, plans and
development programmes, and implement them.
e) Current and likely adverse impacts of climate change have to be established between
upstream and downstream areas so as to promote regional cooperation.
f) In order to achieve the U.N. Millennium Development Goals and avoid or minimize the
impacts of climate change on mountain environments, people and their livelihood, and
ecosystems, the country should be able to take full advantage of the international
climate change regime.
g) There is a need to effectively enhance the capacity of public institutions, planners and
technicians, private sector, NGOs and civil society involved in development work.
h) It is equally important to give attention to develop a capable organizational structure
with necessary financial and human resources for addressing climate change issues.
The various critical areas that should be addressed to impacts of climate change are pointed below:
water resources, agriculture, forests and biodiversity, health, infrastructure development, tourism, and livelihoods.
South Asian and South East Asian countries are trying their best in order to address the impacts of climate change and listed below in point wise:
Participatory assessment and analysis of vulnerability and capacity.
Focus on poor, vulnerable, and marginalized beneficiaries.
Diversity of stakeholders.
Flexible and responsive design and implementation.
Build adaptive capacity at multiple levels and within existing institutions.
Organize various research in vulnerable areas.
Decisive driving forces and effective collaboration frameworks of the local, national and international actions
Resilience and Adaptive Capacity.
Low Carbon Growth.
Change into the Planning Process.