SDG 13 - Team Discussion

Youth For Environment Education And Development Foundation

 
Picture of Krishna Bahadur Khadka
Youth For Environment Education And Development Foundation
by Krishna Bahadur Khadka - Sunday, 3 June 2018, 12:27 AM
 

This forum will host the team discussion where they develop their ideas and plans for SDG 13.

Interaction and feedback both within the team, and between the teams, should help further develop proposed ideas.

Topic questions

  1. Share the impacts of global climate change on your community. 
    Identify the main challenges and critical areas that are most vulnerable and immediate actions are needed to address local impacts.
    .
  2. From global to local, as well as from local to global.
    Learn about other places’ best practices all over the world and what can SA, SEA cases provide to the world?
    .
  3. Dynamics and mechanism. 
    What are the decisive driving forces and effective collaboration frameworks of the local, national and international actions?
    Are there any conflicts and compromises during the action process

Picture of Abinash Thapa Magar
Re: Youth For Environment Education And Development Foundation
by Abinash Thapa Magar - Tuesday, 5 June 2018, 12:00 AM
 

Dear YFEED members and all

Climate change is expected to have serious environmental, economic, and social impacts on South Asia in particular, where rural farmers whose livelihoods depend on the use of natural resources are likely to bear the brunt of its adverse impacts (ICIMOD, 2009). The region is
also confronted by issues like poverty, environmental degradation, natural resources depletion, shrinking water resources; desertification and climate change (Schid, 2008). Climatic variability in this fragile ecosystem and nature based livelihood system of the rural communities has further threatened the livelihood of the local people (Nellemann, Verma., and Hislop. 2011). 
Nepal’s share in climate change is negligibly small. The population of Nepal is less than 0.4% of the world population and is responsible for only about 0.025% of annual greenhouse gas
emissions (NAPA\MOE, 2009). However, Nepal is highly vulnerable to climate change impacts. The magnitude of the problem of climate change and environmental degradation in a mountains and developing country like Nepal is very alarming. CC trend analysis showed that national temperature since 1962 has significant variation between years, but a progressive   increase in maximum temperature is evident in line with global and regional records. Shrestha et al.(2012)reported that increasing trend of temperature is higher in Himalayan region compared to other region and annual increasing trend is0.06° c and trend ishigher than globally(0.02°C).Ministry of Environment(MOE)(2010) projected thatincreased temperature by another 1.2°C by 2030, 1.7°C by 2050, and 3.0°C by 2100 in Nepal Rapid population growth and its consequent effect on over-exploitation of the depleting resources, migration, soil erosion, poor infrastructure, and ecological degradation is taking place everywhere in Nepal. Abinash

Picture of Krishna Bahadur Khadka
Re: Youth For Environment Education And Development Foundation
by Krishna Bahadur Khadka - Tuesday, 5 June 2018, 12:53 AM
 
Hey, Abinash. Thank you so much for sharing statistic data of Nepal.

I have added some more information from my side as well.

  • Global circulation model (GCM) projections indicate that the temperature over Nepal will increase between 0.5ºC and 2.0ºC with a multi-model mean of 1.4ºC, by the 2030s and between 3.0ºC and 6.3ºC, with a multi-model mean of 4.70C, by the 2090s. GCM outputs suggest that extremely hot days (the hottest 5% of days in the period from 1970 to 1999) are projected to increase by up to 55% by the 2060s and up to 70% by the 2090s.
  • GCM outputs suggest that extremely hot nights (the hottest 5% of nights in the period from 1970 to 1999) are projected to increase by up to 77% by the 2060s and 93% by the 2090s.
  • GCMs project a wide range of precipitation changes, especially during the monsoon: from a decrease of 14% to an increase of 40% by the 2030s and from a decrease of 52% to an increase of 135% by the 2090s.

Picture of Abinash Thapa Magar
Re: Youth For Environment Education And Development Foundation
by Abinash Thapa Magar - Friday, 8 June 2018, 2:39 AM
 
Hi krishna 

Thanks for updating data 

The data shows by the 2030s and between 3.0ºC and 6.3ºC, with a multi-model mean of 4.70C, by the 2090s. This has somwhat right predictions taking data into consideration and it seems more difficult life due to hotness we will face in the coming years

Abinash.

Picture of Krishna Bahadur Khadka
Re: Youth For Environment Education And Development Foundation
by Krishna Bahadur Khadka - Tuesday, 5 June 2018, 12:01 AM
 
The diversity in Nepal's climate is fulled by the diversity of its multiple ecosystems and flora and fauna species. The mountain, hill and plains landscapes also support a highly diverse array of cultures and livelihoods. Each of these many socio-economic systems is custom-tailored to take advantage of the opportunities offered by specific micro-climates and localized ecosystems and to respond to the constraints they impose on livelihoods. The livelihoods of over three-quarters of all Nepalis are based on agriculture and forest resources, and almost 65 percent of agriculture is rain-fed (MoPE, 2000). Yet only 21 % of Nepal's area is cultivable and the irrigable agriculture depends on the types of local surface sources, most likely to be affected by erratic rainfall. It is clear, then, that climate change has major implications for Nepal's ability to produce food for its population.
Picture of Abinash Thapa Magar
Re: Youth For Environment Education And Development Foundation
by Abinash Thapa Magar - Tuesday, 5 June 2018, 12:21 AM
 
Dear Krishna and members


Take a look some more information about deforestation and a way of tackling through REDD+ Concept in Nepal

 The drivers of deforestation and land degradation in Nepal are principally attributed to unsustainable harvesting practices, forest fire, encroachment, overgrazing, infrastructure development, resettlement and expansion of invasive species (MOFSC, 2010). 

Governance issues have also been identified as escalating illegal logging, and other broader causes including unclear land tenure, land use rights, and policy and planning are also important contributors to deforestation and forest degradation in Nepal.

Nepal’s engagement with the Forest Carbon Partnership Facility (FCPF) began in 2008, and is in the process of implementing its REDD+ package. The REDD Readiness Preparation Proposal (R-PP) was assessed in July 2010 and a revised R-PP was then submitted to the FCPF in October 2010. Nepal is currently developing its national strategies and is engaging in the implementation of strategies and investments through piloting REDD+ activities. Nepal does not have a National REDD+ Strategy to date, however it will be developed over the next few years following its commission by a USAID funded Hariyo Ban project and other relevant pilot projects on REDD+ at the sub-national scale.

For more information you can see here

https://theredddesk.org/countries/nepal


Also I have attached herewith the PDF format of powerpoint if need to know more about REDD+ concept and how it works in the community forests of Nepal.

Abinash


Picture of Krishna Bahadur Khadka
Re: Youth For Environment Education And Development Foundation
by Krishna Bahadur Khadka - Thursday, 7 June 2018, 1:26 AM
 

Hey Abinash,

Thank you so much for sharing such a wonderful piece of information. I found a very useful website regarding all the activities undertaken by Nepal Government governing body National Planning Commission. I believe this link will be very useful to know more about our government planning and ongoing actions.

https://www.npc.gov.np/en/project/240?


Thank You.


Picture of Abinash Thapa Magar
Re: Youth For Environment Education And Development Foundation
by Abinash Thapa Magar - Friday, 8 June 2018, 2:43 AM
 

Hi krishna 

Thats is really useful link you shared.

Thanks keep going seeking new ideas and innovative work to tackle climate change happening now and then

Also from local to national context, climate change is really happening we can notice on seasonal rainfall pattern, delayed and early agricultural productions than earlier and increased hotness nowadays also

Abinash

Picture of Amit Dahit
Re: Youth For Environment Education And Development Foundation
by Amit Dahit - Sunday, 10 June 2018, 3:10 PM
 

Thanks Krishna je for sharing your information. 

Hi Everybody, Grretings

The following website will help us if update the climate change and Global warming related information. Please try to check for detail information. 

https://climate.nasa.gov/

https://www.environmentalsciencedegree.com

https://climate.nasa.gov/evidence

https://www.wired.com/.../the-epa-website-i.

https://www.vox.com/.../trump-administrati.

www.environment.gov.au/climate-change

https://grist.org/.../in-2017-climate-change-..

www.nature.com/nclimate/ -

Picture of Amit Dahit
Re: Youth For Environment Education And Development Foundation
by Amit Dahit - Monday, 11 June 2018, 4:55 PM
 

Dear all

Greetings !

Some of the photos attached below will elaborate the evidence of climate change in Nepal. 

evidence of climate change in Nepal.à¤à¥ लाà¤à¤¿ तसà¥à¤¬à¤¿à¤° परिणाम


evidence of climate change in Nepal.à¤à¥ लाà¤à¤¿ तसà¥à¤¬à¤¿à¤° परिणाम   evidence of climate change in Nepal.à¤à¥ लाà¤à¤¿ तसà¥à¤¬à¤¿à¤° परिणाम evidence of climate change in Nepal.à¤à¥ लाà¤à¤¿ तसà¥à¤¬à¤¿à¤° परिणाम

Multiple lines of evidence show climate change is happening:

There is lots of evidence that tells us the average temperatures of the world's atmosphere and oceans have increased over the past 150 years.

The evidence includes:

  • direct temperature measurements on land
  • changes in the dates when lakes and rivers freeze and their ice melts
  • a reduction in the extent of snow cover in the Northern Hemisphere
  • a reduction in glaciers
  • extended growing seasons of plants
  • changes in the heat stored in the ocean
  • changes in rainfall patterns resulting in more floods, droughts and intense rain.

A number of biological changes have also been observed.

These include:

  • shifts in the ranges of some plant and animal species
  • earlier timing of spring events such as leaf-unfolding, bird migration and egg-laying for some species.

Together these indicators provide clear evidence that the climate is changing.


Best Regards!

Amit Dahit

Picture of Gokul Kandel
Re: Youth For Environment Education And Development Foundation
by Gokul Kandel - Tuesday, 5 June 2018, 2:12 PM
 

Hello everyone, 

I have posted my view about climate change.

The climate change is a natural phenomenon related to changes in the concentration of the greenhouse gases (water vapor, CO2, CH4, N2O, SO2 and CFCs) in the atmosphere of the earth's surface, which trap infrared radiation and thus cause the greenhouse effect resulting changes in the air temperature, precipitation patterns, sea-level rise, and melting of glaciers. (Central European university, 1999)

As we know, all the sectors and commodities are affected from climate change but the fact is that agriculture is more severely affected. Agriculture depends upon environment by more than 95% and it is vast more than any other sectors.  

In case of agriculture, draught is major problem by it and in case of Nepal: the wheat production decrease by draught (April 2009) is:

Mountain: decrease by 25%

Hill: Decrease by 40%

Terai: Decrease by 10%

The temperature of Nepal increases by 0.04 degree Celsius per year as: Mountain by 0.08 degree Celsius and Terai by 0.04 degree Celsius.

Similarly, total methane released from world is 535000 gega grams in which Nepal shares 984 Gg. Similarly, total methane from world agriculture is 167500 gega grams in which Nepal shares 867 Gg.

Among 867 Gg:

Enteric fermentation: 527

Manure management: 34

Agricultural soil: 306

Some effects with evidences of climate change in agricultural sector of Nepal:

Ø  Drought in Eastern Terai - decreased rice production by 30% in 2006.

Ø  Dry days has increased, evapo-transpiration increased (Mid Western Terai, Mustang,)

Ø  Rice cultivation shifted to 2400 masl from 1800 masl at Gurza VDC of Myagdi (Dhanbir Ghantyal)

Ø  Deciduous fruit plants are flowering twice a year, sometime no leaf shading in winter (Kirtipur in 2010).

Ø  Rice yield reduced by 12.5% in 2006 and productivity reduced to 2.71Mt./ha in 2008 from 2.91 in 2009 at national basis due to drought.

Ø  Crop productivity severely reduced by cold wave in 1997/98 in Nepal (Potato 27.8%, Toria 36.5%, Sorsoo 11.2% & Rayo-seed 30%) as compared to average productivity of the years 1987-1997 (Annual report NARC 1987-1997/98).

Ø  In mid western region heavy rain created floods inundation and crop land destroyed in  2007

Ø  Citrus psylla found upto 1400m.altitude in mid-hills (Gorkha) (Previously 1000m.)

Ø  Exotic weeds are invading in agricultural and semi-agricultural area ( Lantana spp)

   

 

 

 


Picture of Abinash Thapa Magar
Re: Youth For Environment Education And Development Foundation
by Abinash Thapa Magar - Friday, 8 June 2018, 2:46 AM
 

Hi gokul

Thanks for the useful informtion you shared.

So what can we do at the local level to make people aware and be resilent climate change in the context of agricultural production? 

Thank you

Picture of Abinash Thapa Magar
Re: Youth For Environment Education And Development Foundation
by Abinash Thapa Magar - Friday, 8 June 2018, 2:49 AM
 

Hi gokul

Thanks for the update and the information

I want to know, in your view, some more that what kind of local action should we adopt to be resilient and mitigate climate change with awareness program for the people taking in case of agriculutral production in Nepal?

Abinash

Picture of Gokul Kandel
Re: Youth For Environment Education And Development Foundation
by Gokul Kandel - Saturday, 9 June 2018, 3:09 PM
 

Hi Abinash brother,

Thanks for the nice information. It is the basic question raised in local level to higher level to increase the agricultural production since as I already stated that the agriulture is the most vulnerable sector due to climate change. In my view, at first everyone should be made aware focusing the farmers. The resistance variety against climate change should be distributed to farmers. Similarly, government should focus and prioritize different research works. The plan and policies should be prepared to sustain the prduct for long time. Similarly, I think its time to search for best alternative for non renewable energy and its uses in vehicle by practical way. Even a small change in traditional practices can reduce the large amount of GHGs. As an example using SRI technique in rice in place of traditional method can reduce methane gas release by 25% and maintaining the proper manuring system can reduce GHGs like methane and nitrous gaseous. 

Thank you

Picture of Amit Dahit
Re: Youth For Environment Education And Development Foundation
by Amit Dahit - Friday, 15 June 2018, 7:18 PM
 

Gokul Bhai,

Thanks for sharing the information and my queries is how can you say that the wheat product decreases by the given percentage in Terai, Hills and mountains?

Warming indicators 


The 10 indicators are briefly explained below:

  1. Land surface air temperature as measured by weather stations. You know all those skeptic arguments about how the temperature record is biased by the urban heat island effect, badly-sited weather stations, dropped stations, and so on? This is the only indicator which suffers from all those problems. So if you’re arguing with somebody who tries to frame the discussion as being about land surface air temperature, just remind them about the other nine indicators.
  2. Sea surface temperature. As with land temperatures, the longest record goes back to 1850 and the last decade is warmest.
  3. Air temperature over the oceans.
  4. Lower troposphere temperature as measured by satellites for around 50 years. By any of these measures, the 2000s was the warmest decade and each of the last three decades has been much warmer than the previous one.
  5. Ocean heat content, for which records go back over half a century. More than 90% of the extra heat from global warming is going into the oceans – contributing to a rise in…
  6. Sea levelTide gauge records go back to 1870, and sea level has risen at an accelerating rate.
  7. Specific humidity, which has risen in tandem with temperatures.
  8. Glaciers. 2009 was the 19th consecutive year in which there was a net loss of ice from glaciers worldwide.
  9. Northern Hemisphere snow cover, which has also decreased in recent decades.
  10. Perhaps the most dramatic change of all has been in Arctic sea ice. Satellite measurements are available back to 1979 and reliable shipping records back to 1953. September sea ice extent has shrunk by 35% since 1979.

Best Regards !

Amit Dahit


Picture of Anish Shrestha
Re: Youth For Environment Education And Development Foundation
by Anish Shrestha - Friday, 8 June 2018, 5:18 PM
 

We have named this initiatives as Bio char for SDG Asia: Nurturing youthful visions of a sustainable future in Asia. The location of our project is Baglung district, This district is about 275 km west from Kathmandu, the capital city of Nepal. The Baglung Municipality popularly known as Baglung Bazaar is the district headquarter of Baglung district. The town is situated on a plateau overlooking the Kali Gandaki valley gorge directly south of the Dhaulagiri Himalayan range. It has been a quaint trading town since ancient times frequented by traders from north and south. The city is located at the cross-section of Kaligandaki corridor highway and mid hilly highway that transverse Nepal in north-south and east-west directions respectively. 

This project is developed based on the environmental situations of the Baglung district to be covered by the initiative. The project mainly aims to strengthen climate action movement in the district.

The Baglung District lies in Western part of country in province No 04 and covers an area of 1,784 sq. km. The total population, according to the census 2011 A.D is 268,613 where 117997 was male and 150616 were female. The latitudes and longitudes of Baglung District is 28 0 16’38.76” N and 83 0 34’53.81”E respectively.

Our project areas are located west Nepal call Baglung is a high hilly district, most of the population settled on the sides of the rivers. Fertile planes situated either side of the rivers are used for farming. Baglung is rich in herbal medicine plants. Rice, corn, millet, wheat, and potato are the major crops of Baglung. District Headquarter of Baglung (Baglung Bazaar) is also situated in the bank of the holy river- Kaligandaki. Like Nepal, Baglung is cosmopolitan and also diverse in religion, culture, ethnicity, altitude, temperature etc. Hinduism and Buddhism are the major religions. Magar, Chhetri, Bramhan, Newar, Gurung, Chhantyal, Thakali and Dalits are the main ethnic groups living in Baglung. The total household number in Baglung district is 61,482. The major language is Nepali and another, diverse language is seen in Baglung District such as Newar, Gurung, Thakali, Tibetan, and Magar. The total household 12.91% (7941 households) are ridiculously poor. The district enjoys warm humid summers and mild pleasant winters. The highest temperature in the lowest altitude of Baglung rises up to about 37.5 degrees

Celsius in summer and the lowest temperature at Dhorpatan falls up to about −15 degrees Celsius in winter. Rest of the year is mostly dry and sunny. Snowfall is rare in the city cores, however, higher elevations within the district see snow during the winter months.Due to large topographic variation climate ranging from hot subtropical to temperate montane climate can be experienced within the district. Altitude of Baglung varies from about 650 meters at Kharbang to about 4,300 meters in Dhorpatan. The average annual rainfall recorded is 1060.9 ml (1982). Rainfall is heavily affected by the Monsoon and most of it occurs during the months of June through September. Out of the total land, 48.9% (89773Sq. Km) belongs to the forest, 24.52% (4497.6 Sq.km) with agriculture 6.01% (11040 Sq.km) with pasturing and 20.57% (37761.5Sq.km) of land are unproductive. Baglung is well watered by the seasonal river as well as abundant groundwater. The Dhorpatan Hunting Reserve, the only hunting reserve in Nepal and a prime habitat for blue sheep and snow leopard, also falls within district boundaries.

As climate change is the burning issue contemporary running all over the world, the effect of climate change and its result are visualized slowly in this district too. The proof for climate change can be taken in many aspects of the natural phenomenon like rainfall pattern, change in temperature, etc. The report is published which shows that the average temperature is increased by 2 degree Celsius annually. It is a sudden but tremendous change in the rainfall pattern causing drought and heavy rainfall at once. The change in the agricultural process like a decrease in production due to major climatic change also supports the climatic change in this area too. The infestation of insect and pest is increasing which is supported by an increase in temperature. It is supported that the citrus psylla is seen at higher altitude. The land degradation and the land fragility is also supported by it. Similarly, there is vast degradation in the sector of biodiversity and ecosystem by the climatic hurdles in the local area of Baglung. The density of wildlife has been decreasing causing an imbalance in the ecosystem. Desertification is also the major effect seen due to the combined threats of climate change and unsustainable land use. Forest fires have been observed to increase over the last 20 years because of temperatures increases; this trend is going up continuously and will continue in future too. Increased competition for water is likely to result in much lower water availability for ecosystems which could result in the disappearance of wetlands. According to the report of National Adaptation Plan of Action (NAPA) by the ministry of environment 2010 Baglung district is ranked as district having a high risk of landslide and flood. The report shows that the district is less prone to drought but the rate is increasing. Similarly, the district ranked as the moderate but increasing risk of glacier lake outburst flood (GLOF). On the combination of all risk, Baglung ranked as the district with highly vulnerable to the effect of climate change. The NAPA report 2011 ranked the district Baglung as the district with moderate socioeconomic adaptability capacity. The technology adaptability capability of Baglung is also reported as low in comparison to other districts. In combining, the district is ranked as the district with moderate adaptation capability to climate change.

The report concluded by keeping the Baglung district as the most vulnerable district and the district is first prioritized for adaptation planning. As there are many problems caused by the climate change, so this place needs serious mitigation and adaptation measure to face different problem raised by climatic hurdles. The indigenous peoples, local farmers, marginalized and poor peoples are more suffering from the impacts of climate change. Very few people are aware of climate change but they don’t know on adopt the mitigation measure so they need external support. Different mitigation method can be applied to reduce the effect of climate change. The accessibility and availability of food is the basic need of every human and the major source is agriculture which is directly influenced by natural climatic hurdles. The basic production and productivity are reduced by destruction in a different natural cycle like rainfall, temperature, etc. So, on interlinking with each other, the climate change is supposed to be the main obstacles to achieving the basic need of human being. The mitigating measure should be adopted which help to reduce the effect of climate change ultimately resulting in the achievement of food security for every people focusing to provide the human right to them with achieving and maintain sustainable development in all corners of the district.



Picture of Abinash Thapa Magar
Re: Youth For Environment Education And Development Foundation
by Abinash Thapa Magar - Saturday, 9 June 2018, 12:14 AM
 
Dear Anish and all

Here is some more information and knowledge  in PPT what Nepal is doing and future plans and we can discuss more about climate change.






Picture of Amit Dahit
Re: Youth For Environment Education And Development Foundation
by Amit Dahit - Friday, 8 June 2018, 11:19 PM
 

Dear all,

Warm Greetings and Namaste !!

 Despite having only 0.4 percent of the total global population and being responsible for only 0.025 percent of total GHG emissions in the world,Nepal will be affected disproportionately, especially from increasing atmospheric temperature. Changes in the annual rainfall cycle, intense rainfall and longer droughts have been observed. Similarly, both days and nights are presently warmer. The number of days with 100 mm of heavy rainfall is increasing. The timing and duration of rainfall is changing. As glaciers recede from rapid snow and ice melting, glacier lakes are expanding.The adverse impacts of climate change have been noticed in agriculture and food security, water resources, forests and biodiversity, health, tourism and infrastructures. Climate-induced disasters and other effects have caused damages and losses to life, property, and livelihoods. Millions of Nepalese are estimated to be at risk to climate change. In the past 90 years, a glacier in the Sagarmatha region has receded 330 feet vertically. Because of glacier melting, new glacier lakes have formed. Although there will be an increase in river flows untill 2030, this is projected to decrease significantly by the end of this century. The Earth’s climate is changing, with severe consequences for our daily lives and the resilience of our countries. Climate change is disrupting national economies, People are experiencing changing weather patterns, rising sea levels, and extreme weather events. Greenhouse gas emissions from human activities driving this change continue to rise. They are now at their highest levels in history. From 1880 to 2012, the average global temperature increased by 0.85 degrees C. To put this into perspective, for each one degree of temperature increase, grain yields decline by about 5%. Between 1981 and 2002, maize, wheat and other major crops experienced significant yield reductions at the global level of 40 mega tonnes per year due to the warmer climate. From 1901 to 2010, the global average sea level rose by 19 cm as oceans expanded due to warming and ice melt. Global emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2) have increased by almost 50% since 1990 with emissions increasing more quickly between 2000 and 2010 than in each of the three previous decades.

There is no country in the world that is not seeing first-hand the drastic effects of climate change. Greenhouse gas emissions continue to rise, and are now more than 50 percent higher than their 1990 level. Further, global warming is causing long-lasting changes to our climate system, which threatens irreversible consequences if we do not take action now.

The annual average losses from just earthquakes, tsunamis, tropical cyclones and flooding count in the hundreds of billions of dollars, requiring an investment of US$ 6 billion annually in disaster risk management alone. The goal aims to mobilize $100 billion annually by 2020 to address the needs of developing countries and help mitigate climate-related disasters.

“Temperature is increasing; heavy precipitation days are increasing while number of rainy days is decreasing.  With its limited resources, capacity, and finance it becomes expensive for Nepal for adaptation in various sector such as water, energy, agriculture, tourism, energy, infrastructure, biodiversity and mitigation to Climate Chang  See more at: http://southasiajournal.net/climate-change-impact-in-nepal/.

The most two affected sectors which is brining economic loss are agriculture and tourism while impact in water is bringing water scarcity which directly affecting health due to Climate Change in Nepal. - See more at: http://southasiajournal.net/climate-change-impact-in-nepal/

1. Impacts in Tourism sectors: In 2013, avalanches killed 16 people in Mt. Everest that was associate with climate change. In 2012, more than 60 people, three Ukrainian tourists among them, were killed in the popular Mount Annapurna region in western Nepal. - See more at: http://southasiajournal.net/climate-change-impact-in-nepal/. Not only mountains the cities like Pokhara, Chitwan are one among tourist place. These places are equally having impact of climate change. In 2012, Pokhara experienced devastating flood originated from Glacier Lake Outburst Flood. While in Chitwan, People are experiencing warmer days than ever. So the number of the tourist ar also decrasing day by day.  See more at: http://southasiajournal.net/climate-change-impact-in-nepal/.

Impacts in Agriculture: Geographically, Nepal is divided into three east-west ecological zones: the northern range – the mountain, the mid-range – hill and the southern range – terai (flat land). The changing climate has delayed the monsoon rendering thousands of hectares of farm land fallow and reducing the productivity of the land due to lack of rain according to Regmi & Adhikari, 2007. The impact of Climate Change is severe in context of Nepalese farmers because of the country‘s geographical and climatic conditions, and lack of access to resources to cope with the changing climate. Agriculture and food security is one of priority in adaptation to climate change in Nepal. Where 66 percent of people depend on agriculture and 33 percent of revenue is based on it. “Agriculture is a sector where too much or less, both type of rainfall will impact in food security - See more at: http://southasiajournal.net/climate-change-impact-in-nepal/.

Impacts in Water: A research published in internal journal for water resources development shows a gradual slight decrease in annual average rainfall, by 0.9% of baseline in the 2020s, 1.4% in the 2055s and 3.0% in the 2080s. There is a clear increase in rainfall during the early winter months (120% of baseline for November and 102% for December by the 2080s), and a small increase in spring and early summer, but a decrease in late winter, mid-to-late summer, and autumn. These results indicate that farmers will need to adapt to changing rainfall patterns. Cities like Kathmandu, Bhaktapur, patan, are facing severe scarcity of water. These places have stone spout and pond which is the source water and recharge system in areas. But these are drying out. According to resident of Bhaktapur, It has only been ten to fifteen years that these water resources were drying but it has completely fried by now. - See more at: http://southasiajournal.net/climate-change-impact-in-nepal/. According to my research paper, reseacrh in three places of Mountain, hilly and terai explains the changes in precipitation pattern over last 20 years that has been in decreasing trend.

Impacts in Health: According to Shrestha et al.(2011), the rise in temperature was greater at the higher altitudes and increasing in temperature were more pronounced in the winter. It indicated that the warming was more observed in the higher altitude as compared to Terai belts. Either directly or indirectly, the impacts of Climate Change affect human health. In Nepal, every year, many people die and thousands become homeless and suffer from various diseases and injuries due to sudden occurrence of disasters and epidemic diseases.  In a recent 2009 epidemic of diarrhea and cholera in mid-western Nepal more than 200 people lost their lives due to warm climate.  Drought, intense rainfall and flooding can also contribute to epidemics of waterborne infectious diseases - See more at: http://southasiajournal.net/climate-change-impact-in-nepal/
The main challenges and critical areas that are most vulnerable and immediate actions are needed to address local impacts.

National efforts to make the socio-economic sectors climate-resilient is a great

challenge due to the lack of knowledge, scientific data and information related to the

science of climate change and its impact on different geographical and socio-economic

development sectors and use of climate modelling to assess likely impacts.

b) It is also a challenge to assess the effects and likely impacts of climate change, to

identify the vulnerable sectors and enhance their adaptive capacity, and to develop a

mechanism for reducing GHG emissions.

c) It is necessary to create an enabling environment for technical and financial

opportunities at the national and international level in the process of addressing

climate change impacts.

d) It is equally necessary to make the country's socio-economic development climatefriendly,

and to integrate climate change aspects into policies, laws, plans and

development programmes, and implement them.

e) Current and likely adverse impacts of climate change have to be established between

upstream and downstream areas so as to promote regional cooperation.

f) In order to achieve the U.N. Millennium Development Goals and avoid or minimize the

impacts of climate change on mountain environments, people and their livelihood, and

ecosystems, the country should be able to take full advantage of the international

climate change regime.

g) There is a need to effectively enhance the capacity of public institutions, planners and

technicians, private sector, NGOs and civil society involved in development work.

h) It is equally important to give attention to develop a capable organizational structure

with necessary financial and human resources for addressing climate change issues.

 The various critical areas that should be addressed to impacts of climate change are pointed below:

water resources, agriculture, forests and biodiversity, health, infrastructure development, tourism, and livelihoods. 

South Asian and South East Asian countries are trying their best in order to address the impacts of climate change and listed below in point wise:

Participatory assessment and analysis of vulnerability and capacity.

Focus on poor, vulnerable, and marginalized beneficiaries.

Local ownership.

Diversity of stakeholders.

Flexible and responsive design and implementation.

Future-looking.

Build adaptive capacity at multiple levels and within existing institutions.

Capacity Building.

Organize various research in vulnerable areas.

Decisive driving forces and effective collaboration frameworks of the local, national and international actions

Enhancing Climate Resilience and Adaptive Capacity.

Low Carbon Growth.

Mainstreaming Climate Change into the Planning Process.

Enabling Regulatory Framework.




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Picture of Abinash Thapa Magar
Re: Youth For Environment Education And Development Foundation
by Abinash Thapa Magar - Saturday, 9 June 2018, 1:11 AM
 

Hey amit 

Thats great and thanks for the information to take urgent action to combat climate change and its impacts on earth.

The Government of Nepal prepared and promulgated a Climate Change Policy in March 2011. Climate Change Policy is the newest addition to Nepal’s legislative framework. The policy is being prepared in the wake of global climate change awareness and the need for urgent responses to the impending adverse impacts of climate change

Below is the PDF file for the details about climate change policy in Nepal.


Picture of Amit Dahit
Re: Youth For Environment Education And Development Foundation
by Amit Dahit - Friday, 15 June 2018, 5:22 PM
 

Hi Abinash Thapa,

Yes, I know the government has endorsed the Climate Change Policy in March 2011 and it is considered as the legislative framework but the problem is that the necessary action which are clearly mentioned in policy are not implemented clearly and still needs urgent actions to address the impacts of climate change.


Best Regards !

Amit Dahit

Picture of Krishna Bahadur Khadka
Re: Youth For Environment Education And Development Foundation
by Krishna Bahadur Khadka - Sunday, 10 June 2018, 3:44 PM
 

I couldn't resist my self without sharing this pictures. This is what is called pictures speak a louder than word. 


Picture of Krishna Bahadur Khadka
Re: Youth For Environment Education And Development Foundation
by Krishna Bahadur Khadka - Saturday, 16 June 2018, 4:11 PM
 

Hey All,

I have prepared a presentation on Climate Change & Impact in Nepal. I am sorry I was not able to cover all the data however, I have tried to illustrate where we stand in climate change and its Impact. Please go through it and feel free to let me know your comments. 


Regards,
Krishna Khadka.

Picture of Soney Rai
Re: Youth For Environment Education And Development Foundation
by Soney Rai - Tuesday, 19 June 2018, 1:06 AM
 

Hello everyone,

According to the report, Nepal’s mountainous and challenging topography and socio-economic conditions, the country is vulnerable to climate change and ranks 145th on the Human Development Index. Based on National Adaptation Programme of Action 2010, out of 75 districts, 29 districts are highly vulnerable to natural hazards, 22 districts to drought, 12 districts to glacial lake outburst floods, and nine districts to flooding, said the report. https://thehimalayantimes.com/nepal/nepal-highly-vulnerable-to-climate-change-says-report/

The worldwide accepted approach to comprise catastrophic climate change impacts is Adaptation and Mitigation. For a least developed country such as Nepal, adaptation should be the priority. Nepal is currently preparing National Action Plan on Adaptation (NAPA) which should be made as comprehensive and relevant as possible.