SDG 13 - Team Discussion

Soegijapranata Catholic University SDG 13

Picture of Abraham Wahyu Nugroho
Soegijapranata Catholic University SDG 13
by Abraham Wahyu Nugroho - Saturday, 2 June 2018, 5:22 PM

Topic questions

  1. Share the impacts of global climate change on your community. 
    Identify the main challenges and critical areas that are most vulnerable and immediate actions are needed to address local impacts.
  2. From global to local, as well as from local to global.
    Learn about other places’ best practices all over the world and what can SA, SEA cases provide to the world?
  3. Dynamics and mechanism. 
    What are the decisive driving forces and effective collaboration frameworks of the local, national and international actions?
    Are there any conflicts and compromises during the action process?

Picture of Kresno Widyatmoko
Re: Soegijapranata Catholic University SDG 13
by Kresno Widyatmoko - Sunday, 3 June 2018, 3:01 AM


1.      Recent changes are the problem of high tidal water damage to buildings in the coastal areas of Java, due to high waves and also the influence of Australian monsoon winds. for its action immediately built sea dikes and also rehabilitate mangroves

2.      Climate change is not a local problem, but a world problem. We also need to be more concerned about the problem, by not starting to destroy nature, such as burning forests, using excess wells in each building, using industrial oil fuel.

3.      The problem when the action is usually from the individual himself, because of lack of interest in the contribution of the action. And also slow government to process environmental problems

Picture of Amit Dahit
Re: Soegijapranata Catholic University SDG 13
by Amit Dahit - Friday, 15 June 2018, 7:33 PM

Hi Everybody,


Figure b2. Measurements of atmospheric CO2since 1958 from the Mauna Loa Observatory in Hawaii (black) and from the South Pole (red) show a steady annual increase in atmospheric CO2 concentration. (The measurements are made at remote places like those because they are not greatly influenced by local processes, so therefore are representative of the background atmosphere.) The small up and down saw-tooth pattern reflects seasonal changes in the release and uptake of CO2 by plants. Source: Scripps CO2 Program (larger version)


Figure b1. Greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, including water vapour, carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide, absorb heat energy and emit it in all directions (including downwards), keeping Earth’s surface and lower atmosphere warm. Adding more greenhouse gases to the atmosphere enhances the effect, making Earth’s surface and lower atmosphere even warmer. Image based on a figure from US EPA

Human activities have added greenhouse gases to the atmosphere:

The atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide have increased significantly since the Industrial Revolution began. In the case of carbon dioxide, the average concentration measured at the Mauna Loa Observatory in Hawaii has risen from 316 parts per million (ppm) [that is, for every million molecules in the air, 316 of them were CO2] in 1959 (the first full year of data available) to 396 ppm in 2013 (see Figure b2). The same rates of increase have since been recorded at numerous other stations worldwide. Since pre-industrial times, the atmospheric concentration of CO2 has increased by 40%, methane has increased by about 150%, and nitrous oxide has increased by roughly 20%. More than half of the increase in CO2 has occurred since 1970. Increases in all three gases contribute to warming of Earth, with the increase in CO2 playing the largest role. Learn about the sources of human emitted greenhouse gases.

figb3-smallFigure b3. CO2 variations during the past 1,000 years, obtained from analysis of air trapped in an ice core extracted from Antarctica (red squares), show a sharp rise in atmospheric CO2 starting in the late 19th century. Modern atmospheric measurements from Mauna Loa are superimposed in blue. Source: figure by Eric Wolff, data from Etheridge et al., 1996; MacFarling Meure et al., 2006. (larger version)

Scientists have examined greenhouse gases in the context of the past. Analysis of air trapped inside ice that has been accumulating over time in Antarctica shows that the CO2concentration began to increase significantly in the 19th century (see Figure b3), after staying in the range of 260 to 280 ppm for the previous 10,000 years. Ice core records extending back 800,000 years show that during that time, CO2 concentrations remained within the range of 170 to 300 ppm throughout many ‘ice age’ cycles - learn about the ice ages - and no concentration above 300 ppm is seen in ice core records until the past 200 years.

Measurements of the forms (isotopes) of carbon in the modern atmosphere show a clear fingerprint of the addition of ‘old’ carbon (depleted in natural radioactive 14C) coming from the combustion of fossil fuels (as opposed to 'newer' carbon coming from living systems). In addition, it is known that human activities (excluding land-use changes) currently emit an estimated 10 billion tonnes of carbon each year, mostly by burning fossil fuels, which is more than enough to explain the observed increase in concentration.

These and other lines of evidence point conclusively to the fact that the elevated CO2 concentration in our atmosphere is the result of human activities.

Best Regards!
Amit Dahit

Picture of maria igrecia
Re: Soegijapranata Catholic University SDG 13
by maria igrecia - Sunday, 3 June 2018, 3:55 PM

Forest fires in Indonesia, it is very easy to do this because Indonesia has a lot of dense forest.
One other cause of this fire which of course can not be avoided by humans is the climate or drought that hit Indonesia. Moreover the season in Indonesia is only 2 that is drought and rain. This became one of the inhibiting factors of the government in extinguishing the fire because of the difficulty of water sources.

Even the worst fire in Riau that cause air pollution to the neighboring countries of Malaysia and Singapore.

Picture of Gokul Kandel
Re: Soegijapranata Catholic University SDG 13
by Gokul Kandel - Tuesday, 5 June 2018, 2:35 PM
Forest fire is major problem in Nepal also. The release of sequestrated carbon from forest fire and the release of other gas really brings a harmful situation to all species and also causes the damage to environment and soil too.
Picture of maria igrecia
Re: Soegijapranata Catholic University SDG 13
by maria igrecia - Wednesday, 6 June 2018, 12:31 AM

if I may know where areas prone to fire?

dear Gokul Kandel.

Picture of Gokul Kandel
Re: Soegijapranata Catholic University SDG 13
by Gokul Kandel - Thursday, 7 June 2018, 2:24 PM
In case of Nepal, as of April 11, 2016, as many as 1.3 million hectares (over 3.7 million acres) of forest cover in Nepal has been destroyed by wild fires the last two weeks.  Two persons have been killed and there have been huge losses to property across the country.  Historically April and May are the when most forest fires are recorded in Nepal. Forests in Sindhuli, Argakhanchi, Rupandehi, Mahottari, Dhanusha, Bardiya and Dang have been ravaged by fires in the past week, department officials stated. The satellite imagery showed that 457 forests across the country were affected by fires with the worst affected being Sindhuli, whose 40 percent forest cover has been reduced to ashes.  You can see the image: 

thank you

Picture of Maheswari Bala
Re: Soegijapranata Catholic University SDG 13
by Maheswari Bala - Thursday, 7 June 2018, 4:30 PM

Hi Gokul,

Just two months back, in our State (Tamil Nadu), in a particular City called Theni, there has been a deadly forest fire which killed 9 trekkers and 17 were severely injured and hospitalized. Whether the cause was natural or man-made is not clearly known. But it has been estimated that 90% of forest fires in India are man-made. TNAU (Tamil Nadu Agricultural University) highlights that the technical resources for forest fire management are lacking in the country. 

Theni forest fire: a trek that ended in tragedy

Consequently, there has been a National Master Plan for Forest Fire Control initiated by the Ministry of Environment and Forests. 

"This plan proposes to introduce a well-coordinated and integrated fire-management programme that includes the following components:

  • Prevention of human-caused fires through education and environmental modification. It will include silvicultural activities, engineering works, people participation, and education and enforcement. It is proposed that more emphasis be given to people participation through Joint Forest Fire Management for fire prevention.
  • Prompt detection of fires through a well coordinated network of observation points, efficient ground patrolling, and communication networks. Remote sensing technology is to be given due importance in fire detection. For successful fire management and administration, a National Fire Danger Rating System (NFDRS) and Fire Forecasting System are to be developed in the country.
  • Fast initial attack measures.
  • Vigorous follow-up action.
  • Introducing a forest fuel modification system at strategic points.
  • Firefighting resources.

Each of the above components plays an important role in the success of the entire system of fire management. Special emphasis is to be given to research, training, and development"




Picture of Gokul Kandel
Re: Soegijapranata Catholic University SDG 13
by Gokul Kandel - Saturday, 9 June 2018, 2:59 PM
Thanks for the information dear Maheshwori.......

You have given the awesome information. And yeah, of course those component plays an important role and it is important that these should be taken side by side. 



Picture of maria igrecia
Re: Soegijapranata Catholic University SDG 13
by maria igrecia - Wednesday, 13 June 2018, 10:26 AM

thanks to the information, the result of the fire is almost the same in Indonesia. many carbon dioxide is not produced.

Picture of Kresno Widyatmoko
Re: Soegijapranata Catholic University SDG 13
by Kresno Widyatmoko - Friday, 22 June 2018, 5:19 PM

Hi Gokul,

In Indonesia also had experienced the worst forest fire cases in southeast asia in 1997,
Total losses are estimated to be at least US $ 4.47 billion. The biggest losses suffered by Indonesia. This figure excludes losses that are difficult to measure or assess in money such as casualties, long-term illnesses, and the destruction of biodiversity.

Forest fires in Indonesia in 1997 are estimated to be between 0.81 and 2.57 gigatons of carbon into the atmosphere, approximately 13-40% of annual carbon dioxide emissions from fossil fuels.

In order to prevent future haze, the Association of Southeast Asian Nations agreed to establish an early warning system in the Regional Haze Action Plan (RHAP) 1998 to prevent forest fires and haze by improving policies and disaster management, for example application of Fire Danger Rating System (FDRS).

Picture of Amit Dahit
Re: Soegijapranata Catholic University SDG 13
by Amit Dahit - Saturday, 9 June 2018, 1:46 PM

Hello Maria,

In 2010, the Government of Nepal approved National Adaptation Programme of Action (NAPA). NAPA developed as a requirement under the UNFCCC to access funding for the most urgent and immediate adaptation needs from the Least Developed Countries Fund (LDCF).

In Nepal, NAPA developed with three components: Preparation and dissemination of NAPA documents, development and maintenance of the Nepal Climate Change Knowledge Management Centre (NCCKMC), and development of the Multi-Stakeholder Climate Change Initiative Coordination Committee (MCCICC). Nepal has prepared a National Adaptation Programme of Action (NAPA)  in 2010 and a Climate Change Policy in 2011. Likewise, the Government also  approved the National Framework on Local Adaptation Plans for Action (LAPA) in 2011, based on which 100 LAPAs were prepared for implementation in 87 VDCs and 9 municipalities of 14 climate-vulnerable districts of the mid and far-western regions. In this context, the Nepal Climate Change Support Programme (NCCSP) strives to continue to build the capacity of vulnerable communities to adapt to the negative effects of climate change.

In NAPA, nine integrated projects have been identified as the urgent and immediate national adaptation priority. They are:

  1. Promoting community-based adaptation through integrated management of agriculture, water, forest and biodiversity sector
  2. Building and enhancing adaptive capacity of vulnerable communities through improved system and access to services related to agriculture development
  3. Community-based disaster management for facilitating climate adaptation
  4. GLOF Monitoring and disaster risk reduction and forest and ecosystem management for supporting climate-led adaptation innovations
  5. Adapting to climate challenges in public health and ecosystem management for climate adaptation
  6. Empowering vulnerable communities through sustainable management of water resource and clean energy support and promoting climate smart urban settlement.

Nepal enhanced Actions to Address the impacts of climate change:

Nepal has initiated several activities to reduce climate hazards and build resiliency, help climate vulnerable communities to cope with climate change impacts, and reduce impacts of climate change on its people, property and natural resources. Key and most relevant activities are briefly mentioned below:

1. Institutions

a. Institutional Strengthening.

b. Coordination Mechanism.

2. Policies, Strategies and Frameworks.

a. Climate Change Policy.

b. Forestry Sector Policies and Strategies.

c. Energy Policy.

d. Environment-Friendly Vehicle and Transport Policy.

e. National REDD Strategy.

f. Low Carbon Economic Development Strategy.

g. National Adaptation Programme of Action.

h. National Framework on Local Adaptation Plan for Action.

i. National Adaptation Plans.

j. Environment Friendly Local Governance Framework.

.k. Channelling funding for climate change activities

3. Adaptation Actions

a. Adapting to climate change.

b. Building climate resilience.

4. Knowledge Management Nepal has initiated knowledge generation and dissemination by establishing a Climate Change Knowledge Management Centre. Several governmental, non-governmental and community-based organizations, academe and research institutions are involved in generating and disseminating data and information on climate change and its impacts in the recent years.

5. Mitigation Actions

a. Clean energy development pathways.

b. Afforestation and enhancing carbon sequestration.

c. Moving towards Environmentally Sustainable Transport System.

d. Promoting Climate Friendly Practices in Agriculture.

e. Waste management and air pollution Control.

f. Building Codes.

Picture of Amit Dahit
Re: Soegijapranata Catholic University SDG 13
by Amit Dahit - Friday, 15 June 2018, 3:31 PM

Yes Gokul Bhai, I agree with your statement that forest fore is a major problems for Nepal which enhance the climate change. But forest fire is not only the major problems for Nepal. In my view, weak policy, weak coordination and collaboration between the line agencies and weak monitoring by the government is also the major problems for Nepal. Many of these disasters can be traced back to changes in our climate, fueled by human activity which produces carbon dioxide, methane and other powerful global warming gases. Information from the Ministry of Disaster Management and Refugee Affairs shows that between January and June of this year, disasters destroyed 2,154 houses, 55 classrooms, about 2,225 hectares of crops, 14 bridges and 22 kilometers of roads 

Climate Change is the burning issue and threatening the existence of human lives. So it is the urgent necessity to take immediate action in order to mitigate the impacts of the climate change.  

In my view, there are seven ways to mitigate the impacts of the climate change.

1. Smart and green transportation: 

Around the world, transport contributes about a quarter of the pollution that causes climate change. This comes from cars, trucks, buses, planes and ships burning fuel made from oil. Building a sustainable economy means ensuring transportation is clean and green. In order to make a green city, the state should invest its budget smart public transport such as electric buses and motorbikes. This would help to reduce the country’s contribution to climate change, and improve the quality of our air. 

2. Buy the local products:
The state should invest huge amount of budget in the local products and community people also necessary to buy the local products. The GHGs scenario is very less in local products than imported from foreign countries.

3. Sustainable eating:

People think that eating only has health implications. But the reality is that what we put on our plates also has a huge impact on climate change. The production of meat based products, for example, consumes a huge amount of energy and produces vast amounts of global warming pollution.

Livestock farming produces more greenhouse gas than all of the world’s transport combined. This is a result of land clearing, methane (a powerful warming gas) produced by cows and sheep, and a range of other factors.

Having a vegetarian diet can reduce the water needed to produce food by as much as 80 to 90 per cent, and reduce your risk of the health problems caused by eating meat.

4. Plant trees:

Trees absorb carbon dioxide (a gas that causes climate change) and produce the oxygen we breathe. Without trees, life on earth for humans would not be possible. So over the next few months, plant a few trees in your area as part of barren land The planet and your lungs will thank you for it.

5. Use less plastic:

There is still some way to go to address the problems caused by plastic pollution. From air quality to ocean toxicity, non-biodegradable plastics contribute to eco-system disruption. At the current rate, there is likely to be more plastic in the ocean than fish by 2050– an unacceptable situation.
So, next time you are at a restaurant or supermarket, think about how you can reduce your plastic use. This could be as simple as not asking for a straw, or buying products that aren’t wrapped in plastics.

6. Cleaner cooking:

Charcoal remains the preferred fuel for cooking in most Rwandan households, but the negative impacts on our health and the climate are severe.

Around the world, more than four million people die prematurely from illness attributable to the household air pollution from cooking with fuels like charcoal. More than 50% of premature deaths due to pneumonia among children under 5 are caused by the soot inhaled from household air pollution. Using charcoal reduces also causes deforestation and soil erosion as trees are cut down to make the fuel. 


A charcoal trader in Kimihurura, Kigali. File.

To address this, the Government has a target to reduce charcoal use from 94% to 50% of all households by 2020. Using liquid petroleum gas (LPG) and other alternatives including solar and thermal applications could reduce wood consumption.
Improved and more efficient cook stoves are a big part of the solution. Save 80 stoves, and Nyerere stoves (which burn compressed wood pellets) use significantly less wood and have been introduced to the local market to help address this issue.

7. Invest in renewable energy

With a fast-growing economy, there is no question that Rwanda needs to scale up its energy production. However, with power generation contributing a large percentage of the pollution that causes global warming, Rwanda needs to be smart in producing electricity and efficient in using it.

One of the easy ways the country can reduce its carbon pollution is to transition from diesel generators. Not only do they contribute to climate change, but the smoke that results from burning the diesel is dangerous to our health and is reducing air quality, especially in Kigali.

One practical solution is to invest in renewable such as solar and hydro, and pair these investments with the latest battery technology that can store the energy and have it ready to use during peak hours.


Best Regards !

Amit Dahit

Picture of Anish Shrestha
Re: Soegijapranata Catholic University SDG 13
by Anish Shrestha - Friday, 8 June 2018, 11:12 PM

Hello Maria,

An ‘Intended Nationally Determined Contribution’ report drafted by the Ministry of Population and Environment to submit it to the Germany-based United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change Secretariat has painted a gloomy picture of the impacts of climate change on the overall environment of Nepal.

Nepal is a party to the UNFCCC, a treaty, which aims to ‘stabilize greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere at a level that would prevent dangerous anthropocentric interference with the climate system’.

According to the report, Nepal’s mountainous and challenging topography and socio-economic conditions, which ranks 145th on the Human Development Index, make the country highly vulnerable to climate change.

Under various climate change scenarios for Nepal, mean annual temperatures are projected to increase between 1.3-3.8 degree Celsius by the 2060s and 1.8-5.8 degree Celsius by the 2090s.

Annual precipitation reduction is projected to be at the range of 10 to 20 per cent across the country. In the country’s Himalaya, total estimated ice reserve between 1977 and 2010 has decreased by 29 per cent (129 cubic kilometer).

The number of glacier lakes has increased by 11 per cent and glaciers recede on an average by 38 square kilometer per year. Hence, climate change has visible and pronounced impacts on snows and glaciers that are likely to increase the glacier lakes outburst floods.Nepal has experienced changes in temperature and mean precipitation.

The country, with the exception of some isolated pockets, has become warmer. Data on temperature trends from 1975 to 2005 showed 0.060 degree Celsius rise in temperature annually whereas mean rainfall has significantly decreased on an average of 3.7 mm (-3.2 per cent) per month per decade.

Nepal has suffered from increased frequency of extreme weather events such as landslides, floods and droughts resulting to the loss of human lives as well as high social and economic costs.

The 2013 study on Economic Assessment of Climate Change in Key Sectors (agriculture, hydro-power and water-induced disasters) has estimated direct cost of current climate variability and extreme events equivalent to 1.5 to 2 per cent of current GDP/year (approximately USD 270-360 million/year in 2013 prices) and much higher in extreme years.In the case of hydro-power, the model projected lower dry season flows and thus lower energy availability.

The additional generation capacity needed to meet future demand under this scenario, due to climate change, was estimated at 2800 MW by 2050 with an increase in costs of USD 2.6 billion (present value) for the period through to 2050.

Nepal is one of the most vulnerable countries to climate change, water-induced disasters and hydro-meteorological extreme events such as droughts, storms, floods, inundation, landslides, debris flow, soil erosion and avalanche.

Based on National Adaptation Programme of Action 2010, out of 75 districts, 29 districts are highly vulnerable to natural hazards, 22 districts to drought, 12 districts to glacial lake outburst floods, and nine districts to flooding, said the report.

Your's Faithfully,


Picture of Abraham Wahyu Nugroho
Re: Soegijapranata Catholic University SDG 13
by Abraham Wahyu Nugroho - Tuesday, 12 June 2018, 11:16 PM

Hi Anish,

I'm interested with your ministry nomenclature, Ministry of Population and Environment. I think there is correlations between population dynamics and climate vulnerability. The factors could be critical points for developing effective policies and actions.



Picture of Theresia Anindita
Re: Soegijapranata Catholic University SDG 13
by Theresia Anindita - Saturday, 23 June 2018, 3:48 PM

SDG 13 - Climate Action

Indonesia is one of the countries most vulnerable to climate change impacts for youth as a renewal cadre is expected to put climate change as an important issue. Climate change has been felt significantly due to global warming, increased carbon emissions and greenhouse gas concentrations due to human activities and is a challenge to development today. Besides that, the perceived impact is also like extreme rain, landslide, flood, tornado

In our community we have a program to plant the mangroves. For this year, we plan to build in the coastal area of Tambakrejo, Semarang. This program will collaboration with the forest protection team (in Indonesia called with "Lindungi Hutan") where we will carry out the activities together. This activity as a form of our real action in reducing or preventing climate change that is currently happening. We hope that with our concrete actions, we can reduce the climate as well as encourage the community or young people to care or participate in responding to current climate change issues.