SDG 13 - Team Discussion

Shelter Participatory Organization - climate change is real time threat

Picture of Samreen Khan Ghauri
Shelter Participatory Organization - climate change is real time threat
by Samreen Khan Ghauri - Thursday, 31 May 2018, 7:09 AM

Climate change is real time threat for humanity, We could not pretend that it is not happening. As far as the impact of climate shift on our community,  Pakistan is among the most vulnerable countries facing climate risks, weather patterns are becoming increasingly erratic. In the 1999 to 2002 period Pakistan was hit by severe droughts as the flow in the Indus and its tributaries fell dramatically. But from 2010 to 2012 a series of unusually intense monsoons caused the Indus to burst its banks, resulting in widespread floods: thousands were killed and millions displaced.

Recently, across country facing acute heat weave as temperature increased up to 50 degree, increase in heat waves and rising temperatures are badly effecting  daily life and socio-economic pattern of our society. Rising temperatures are also causing health problems among the area’s population. In many cases farmers in the region among the poorest people in the world are abandoning their lands and migrating to already overcrowded cities.

In my point of view, we can enforce small community actions that actually contributed towards global impact,  I strongly believe that small measures at community level can bring real change. We carried out community assessments which provided a useful insight on how people worked together to improve their resilience.

I feel that there is a dilemma while local community may underestimated the importance of climate shift and the intensity of issues as the Pakistani public finds it difficult to prioritize climate change when the average citizen is deprived of life’s most basic necessities. It’s a big challenge for us to highlight the issue through our multimedia production and the intensity of the problem while people struggling of fulfillment of their basic life requirement such as food and  shelter. How can we do that?

Picture of Waqas Rajput
Re: Climate change is real time threat
by Waqas Rajput - Thursday, 31 May 2018, 8:00 AM

Yes, it is a big question indeed! Samreen, we can related food acute shortage, crops and land fertilization as it directly linked of weather and climate shift. We emphasizes more resilient options for growth and sustainable development… the climate change clock is ticking too fast and the time to act is here

Video Journalist, Blogger, Media Person
Re: Climate change is real time threat
by Sonahri Shaikh - Thursday, 31 May 2018, 8:11 AM

I agree Samreen that it is a big challenge to address issue like climate change through our multimedia production to such unprivileged locals in our community, what I see is we have many NGOs, social activists Even education specialists who are busy in training and addressing these issues of climate action but still they fail to bring implementation. we need to think more deeper and creative way that how our production a can bring impact on locals.

I guess we need to make a research first that what source a local people prefer to know about climate action. 

Picture of Ali Madad Sakhirani
Re: Climate change is real time threat
by Ali Madad Sakhirani - Thursday, 31 May 2018, 8:19 AM 

An interesting read guys! It revels that how international community and global financial institutions facilitate countries of global south like Pakistan! But I am afraid that the huge money would spend on proper and transparent manner!

Video Journalist, Blogger, Media Person
Re: Climate change is real time threat
by Sonahri Shaikh - Thursday, 31 May 2018, 8:43 AM

check this out!!! Alarming.Reports says Pakistan will run out of water in 2025!

Picture of Samreen Khan Ghauri
Re: Climate change is real time threat
by Samreen Khan Ghauri - Friday, 1 June 2018, 3:52 AM

Yes Sonahri, we are moving this direction to get involve local communities as it is best method of suggesting alternatives solutions and initiatives coming from heart of community, our chosen community of MEHER Ali slum area is the best example, and we will work more deeper in the community. 

Picture of Waqas Rajput
Re: Climate change is real time threat
by Waqas Rajput - Saturday, 2 June 2018, 8:04 AM

Here it the link that help us to be aware with climate changes and its the responsibility of Every individual that look around there surrounding areas and help other citizens as well

Picture of Gokul Kandel
Re: Shelter Participatory Organization - climate change is real time threat
by Gokul Kandel - Tuesday, 5 June 2018, 2:30 PM

Thank you Samreen for information,

I like your post: you have start the first line saying we cannot pretend it is not happening. Seriously, the climate change is natural process but in later days the process is repeating in short time frame by bringing higher effect. I has prepared the graph which is attached in Ms- word file. Please view it.

Evidence of climate change








Re: Shelter Participatory Organization - climate change is real time threat
by Manju Muraleedharan - Wednesday, 6 June 2018, 3:36 PM
Dear Samreen, 

Your posts are always informative. I would like to add to your discussion by bringing in the point explained below.

Mridula Ramesh is the founder of the Madurai-based Sundaram Climate Institute. In her new book titled The Climate Solution, she affirms that Indian women are going to be affected more than their male counterparts because of the climate changes. 

She has mentioned three buckets of risk factors. How does it apply to women in Pakistan? 

Please check  the link below for details.


Picture of Samreen Khan Ghauri
Re: Shelter Participatory Organization - climate change is real time threat
by Samreen Khan Ghauri - Friday, 8 June 2018, 3:08 AM
My dear Manju! Greetings from Hyderabad, Pakistan! I am glad to know that you are thinking in same way as look into the issue through Gender lance, being women we need to pay special focus on development justice and of course women are most vulnerable while talking about specifically on climate shift outcomes. I go through the link story as you shared and totally convince what elaborates as the missing point to approach climate change in India. The situation in Pakistan more or less is same, country faces many environmental challenges including deforestation, biodiversity loss, air pollution, lack of access to safe drinking water and climate change The effects of climate change and global warming are pronounced in Pakistan given the country’s over-reliance on the environment for basic survival, the high population growth rate and density, low capacity to absorb the negative impacts of climate change and the wide-spread problem of poverty. Climate change affects both women and men given that a significant number of the population is heavily involved in agricultural activities. Women across Pakistan are considered disenfranchised in multiple communities due to various cultural, social and religious constraints. However, their distinct roles within all sectors of the economy are important when tackling development objectives. The consequences of climate change affect female employment in Pakistan. In 2010-2011, 74.2% of the working women belonged to the agricultural sector. In contrast, only 34.7% of the men were employed in the agricultural sector . Women play a major role in farming activities such as sowing, transplanting, weeding and harvesting, as well as post-harvesting operations such as threshing, drying, storage, off-farm transport and marketing. In livestock rearing, women collect fodder, clean animals, make dung cakes, process animals’ food products such as cheese, butter, yogurt and market them. With shifts in weather patterns, the vulnerability of women is expected to increase. While climate change is expected to affect different sectors of the society, a more severe impact on women is expected because of their productive and reproductive roles. Past natural disasters reveal how women were the first and major group to be directly affected in Pakistan. For example, during Moreover, 4 The last Population & Housing Census conducted in Pakistan was in 1998. The most recent census is underway for the year 2017. 8 rural women in water-stressed communities are mainly responsible for collecting water. Access to improved drinking water stands at 65%, decreased water availability due to climate change is likely to impact not only the agricultural potential for women but also their time usage. Climate change effects such as drought, saline intrusions and erratic rainfall patterns will result in women working longer to secure water resources and having less time to earn income. Climate change can potentially harm Pakistan with its tremendous social, environmental and economic impacts and naturally women are most effected because of direct connection and impact on being most vulnerable part of society.
Picture of Anish Shrestha
Re: Shelter Participatory Organization - climate change is real time threat
by Anish Shrestha - Friday, 8 June 2018, 11:05 PM

Dear Samreen,

As a climate vulnerable, land-locked, least-developed and mountainous country, Nepal is facing a number of challenges in the recent years. Poor Nepalese are becoming 'climate refugees' in their birthplace, compelled to migrate for 'survival' and/or for better opportunities. Impact of climate change is crystal clear in almost all socio-economic development sectors and natural resources sector in Nepal. This situation is even worse as compared to last decade.

International community has unanimously agreed that climate change is real and requires high level of international cooperation as early as possible. Members have agreed to adopt and implement UN Frameworks Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC, 1992), Kyoto Protocol (1997) and the Paris Agreement (2015). Developed countries have committed to support the least developed countries (LDCs) with finance and technology. As greenhouse gas emissions from LDCs is negligible (only 0.027% from Nepal, of the total global emissions), poor people have the only option to develop capacity to adapt to climate change impacts. LDCs prepared and implemented National Adaptation Programme of Action (NAPA) – a global initiative for LDCs agreed by Parties in the 7th session of the UNFCCC in 2001 in Marrakech – to address their most urgent and immediate adaptation needs.

To implement adaptation options, Nepal prepared NAPA in 2010 with 'seed funding' from LDC Fund, major funding from DFID and additional support from the Government of Denmark. During NAPA preparation, adaptation communities emphasized developing a mechanism that promotes to localise and integrate adaptation actions into Nepal's development planning. For this, the Government with support from DFID prepared a National Framework on Local Adaptation Plan for Action (LAPA) and approved it in November 2011.

LAPA became a 'flagship' initiative of Nepal to localize adaptation as the Climate Change Policy (2011) which calls for channeling more than 80 percent of the climate change-related finance to field level activities. In 2013, the Government channeled such finance through a dedicated 'climate change budget code'. Multi-stakeholders participation in developing and implementing LAPA enhanced high level of 'ownership over the LAPA framework' that meets the twin objectives of 'integrating climate change adaptation into local to national planning processes' and preparing and implementing a 'stand-alone LAPA' for a defined unit – settlements, wards, municipality, sub-watershed, watershed or a basin, an unit as defined for LAPA preparation and implementation. It clearly indicates high level of 'flexibility' in defining unit for LAPAs. Initially, Nepal selected administrative/political unit to prepare and implement LAPAs.

Nepal documented knowledge, experience and learning on LAPAs while implementing DFID and EU supported Nepal Climate Change Support Programme (NCCSP) in climate vulnerable 14 districts of mid-west and far west Nepal, including learning from other projects. Learning from NCCSP was recognized and appreciated within 5 good practices during the 2015 Paris Climate Change Conference, out of 170 submissions at the global level. The Adaptation Fund Board mentioned the work of NCCSP as 'people's champion' and 'honorable mentions' in 2016. LAPA has been instrumental in drawing the interest of the international community to help poor people to adapt and build resilience to climate change impacts.

Nepal, also an idea generator, has advanced multi-stakeholder participation in National Adaptation Plan (NAP) formulation process which will help in addressing medium- and long-term adaptation needs of the country by reducing climate vulnerability and integrating adaptation into existing and new relevant policies, plans and programmes. Engagement of over 200 Government-nominated individuals, representing multi-stakeholders in 7 thematic and 2 cross-cutting working groups (each group is led by Joint-Secretary of the concerned Ministry) to formulate NAP in itself unique. It seeks guidance from policy stakeholders, and sufficiently engages service providers, beneficiaries, enablers and advocates in NAP formulation process. Nepal's NAP will build on experiences of NAPA and LAPAs, including other initiatives and will synergies with Sustainable Development Goals, Sendai Framework on Disaster Risk Reduction and the New Urban Agenda (outcome of Habitat III conference).

In localizing adaptation, tripartite cooperation and collaboration proved very effective in Nepal. The Government led the LAPA formulation process with support from DFID in generating ideas, conceptualizing and piloting the LAPA framework. Implementation of the NCCSP in 14 districts with support from DFID and EU proved that LAPA works well. In this context, LAPA is a 'baby' developed and nourished by the Government of Nepal, financially supported by DFID and EU, and used by adaptation communities engaged in implementing adaptation options in Nepal.

Nearly a half-decade of implementation experience of LAPA framework has proved it to be an 'operational instrument' to localise adaptation options and help climate vulnerable poor people to adapt and build resilience to climate change impacts. Nepal and its development partners, at least the LAPA initiating partners, must continue to support this evidence-based proven LAPA framework to localize and integrate adaptation into development processes from local to national levels. This strongly demands continuing 'joint-effort' to fight against adverse impacts of climate change and improve livelihoods, and avoid previous practices of piloting, developing a tool and leaving it at the 'cross-road'. It is, therefore, the need to advance/extend the use of LAPA framework at provincial and municipality levels through domestic resources, and support from friendly countries, UN and multilateral agencies as an 'adaptation tool' that addresses the needs of the poor.

Your's Respectfully,


Picture of Samreen Khan Ghauri
Re: Shelter Participatory Organization - climate change is real time threat
by Samreen Khan Ghauri - Saturday, 9 June 2018, 4:15 AM
Dear Anish, Thank you so much for detailed and very informative post! As you said that Nepal is vulnerable in term of climate shift and natural disaster and to address theses challenges different national and international entities work together, I would refer Pakistan situation, as you know that A massive earthquake struck Pakistan on October 8, 2005. This was the strongest earthquake in the area during the last hundred years. This earthquake was by far the most destructive disaster in the region. Current reports indicate that close to 80,000 people were killed and at least 50,000 more were injured in the northern areas of Pakistan, in the Pakistani-controlled Kashmir, in the Indian-controlled Kashmir (known as Jammu-Kashmir), and in Northern India. Thousands of houses were destroyed. After this mega devastation , to address the situation a department has been formulated called National Disaster Management Authority (NDMA) is the lead agency at the Federal level to deal with the whole spectrum of Disaster Management activities. It is the executive arm of the National Disaster Management Commission (NDMC) which has been established under the Chairmanship of the Prime Minister as the apex policy making body in the field of Disaster Management. In the event of a disaster, all stakeholders including Government Ministries/Departments/Organizations, Armed Forces, INGOs, NGOs, UN Agencies work through and form part of the NDMA to conduct one window operations. It is established under the National Disaster Management Act – 2010 and functions under the supervision of National Disaster Management Commission (NDMC) which is headed by the Prime Minister of Islamic Republic of Pakistan. NDMA manages the whole Disaster Management Cycle (DMC) which includes Preparedness, Mitigation, Risk Reduction, Relief and Rehabilitation. A National Disaster Management Plan (NDMP) is prepared and is followed towards provision of better services to the affected ones. Yet, as per ground realities, these bodies are not fully functional toward local communities, I really appreciate the idea of LAPA – Nepal idea of framing of provincial, municipal and local communities support and close bounding. Its curricle juncture moving towards creating resilience societies and highly needed work with local communities.

Best Regards


Picture of Anish Shrestha
Re: Shelter Participatory Organization - climate change is real time threat
by Anish Shrestha - Saturday, 16 June 2018, 1:47 AM

Dear Samreen,

Thank you very much for your kind information about Disaster Risk Management agency formation and action by government of Pakistan. We also have National Reconstruction Authority established by the Government of Nepal to mainly look after reconstruction work and rebuild the nation from the massive earthquake that stuck the nation in April 2015 also known as Gorkha earthquake. 

The Agriculture is one of the other sectors most vulnerable to climate change impact. The impact is even stronger in Mountain region of Nepal, where the topography is fragile and agriculture is important for the daily subsistence. Therefore, it is crucial to increase the understanding of the actual climate change dynamics on agricultural activities at the household level. This study uses the Prok Village Development Committee in western mountain region of Nepal, as a case study to examine the local climatic trends and its impacts, vulnerability and adaptation in the agriculture sector. The study uses semi-structured interview and participatory appraisals methods to garner the socio-economic data and filed based observation and laboratory analysis of soil samples for study of soil vulnerability. Socio-economic status of farmers in the villages of Prok VDC is found very poor and they are vulnerable to climate change. Soil of this region is stony and sandy loam and the crop yield is lower than national average. Trend analysis of temperature and precipitation over 30 years indicates that this region is experiencing various weather variability. The result shows a trend of gradual, erratic and extreme weather changes where farming system is constrained. Farmer perceptions on climate change generally agree with the weather station trend. Erratic changes in rainfall pattern, temperature variation and gradual reduction in snowfall are some of the main constraining factors on farming. Drought, delay in monsoon and heavy and unseasonal rain are major challenges on agriculture. Majority of the farmers believe that crop failure, crop damage, degradation of pasture, low quality fodder and forage are due to the increase in temperature, erratic precipitation pattern and windstorms in their village. The changing scenario has forced local people to find measures to secure their livelihoods. To cope with the impacts the societies use re-sowing, cultivating catch crops and short seasoned crops, shifting of animal shed to less landslide risk area, planting fodder tress and practicing agroforestry, saving of grains and money, on land diversification, off-farm activities and credits as a strategy. The existing local and institutional strategies are not sufficient and sustainable to cope with climatic vagaries. It is very important to address the problems in this region with institutional support and through a long-term policy perspective.  

Your's Respectfully,


Picture of Samreen Khan Ghauri
Re: Shelter Participatory Organization - climate change is real time threat
by Samreen Khan Ghauri - Saturday, 16 June 2018, 3:06 PM

Excited and really motivated to watch the video that how China taking serious efforts to restore environment, I think we have to push our governments to take such kind of concrete efforts or at least we can start a movement at local level.

Picture of Abinash Thapa Magar
Re: Shelter Participatory Organization - climate change is real time threat
by Abinash Thapa Magar - Saturday, 9 June 2018, 10:14 AM

Dear Manju and Samreen

Women are often in the frontline in respect to the impacts of a changing climate. Globally the world is seeing increasingly frequent droughts and floods which are having economic but also profound social consequences. The women and people of Asia are currently at greatest risk with over 100 million people affected in this region annually.

Adaptation, vulnerability and resilience of people to climate change depend upon a range of conditions. These vary from their degree of exposure and dependency upon weather patterns for livelihoods and food security, to varying capacities in adaptation, which are influenced by gender, social status, economic poverty, power, access, and control and ownership over resources in the household, community and society. Mountain peoples are especially vulnerable since climate impacts and changes are predominantly acute in mountainous regions. 

Women, who do the majority of drudge work, in the economically and environmentally fragile Hindu Kush Himalayas region are disproportionately impacted by the effects of climate change

For more see here :

Picture of Amit Dahit
Re: Shelter Participatory Organization - climate change is real time threat
by Amit Dahit - Monday, 11 June 2018, 5:23 PM

Hi,Samreen Khan Ghauri ,

Thanks for sharing the information of Pakistan. 

i also review some of the related climate change documents and i conclude that South Asian Countries are more vulnerable to climate change impacts. So in order to mitigate the impacts of climate change, each of the countries should have their own clear climate change policy and that should be well implemented. Climate change is happening across the globe and Nepal is also facing serious environmental, social and economical problems. So, Nepal governments is also serious and taking action various types of action from the very beginning. Briefly, i have elaborate the Nepal response to climate change.  Please go thoroughly and if you have any queries, feel free to inform me.

2.3 Nepal Response to climate Change

Nepal signed the United Nations frame work convention on climate change (UNFCCC) in Rio de Janerio in June 12, 1992 and ratified it on May 2, 1994. It has been regularly participating in conference of Parties (COPs) and other subsidiary meetings and it also became a party of Kyoto protocol by submitting its instrument of accession. Under UNFCCC commitments Nepal is supposed to prepare a periodic National greenhousegas inventory and submit to the “National communication” to the UNFCCC (Khatiwada, 2011). Although Nepal has very negligible greenhouse gas emission in the global context, Nepal is highly susceptible to the climate change it is because due to low adaptive capacity and most of the people are poor and they depend on natural resources for their livelihood directly. The governments of Nepal have made sincere efforts in order to minimize the effects of climate change, mitigation and adaptation are under process. Ministry of Environment, Science and Technology (MOEST) to set up appropriate policy regime to facilitate the process and implementation of plans and programs related to climate change in Nepal (Devkota, 2011). The Governments of Nepal has established a climate change management division in the MoEST in 2010. With three section, Climate change section, Climate change council secretariat section and clean development mechanisms section. Likewise the Ministry of forest and soil conservation has created REDD and climate change cell to promote climate change related activities (MoEnv, 2011). The

Quantitative targets of the policy are given

 Establishment of the climate change center for conducting climate change research and monitoring.

 Imitation of community –based local adaptation actions as mentioned in the National Adaptation Programme of Action (NAPA) by managing financial

resources by 2011.

 In order to get benefit from the clean development mechanisms by 2012, Nepal has prepared national strategy for carbon trade.

 Formulation and implementation of a low carbon economic development strategy that supports climate resilient socio-economic development by 2014.

 Development of the reliable impact forecasting system to reduce the adverse impacts of climate change to natural resources and people’s livelihood vulnerable areas of the Mountains, Hills, Churia and Terai.

Green economy policy has been deemed important for Nepal (NPC, 2011). The three year National development Plan (2010-2013) has recognized potential threats posed by climate change to sustainability of development activities. The National Planning commission has also introduced climate resilient planning and poverty reduction initiatives (NPC, 2011). Global environment facility (GEF) is the ‘financial operating entity’ of the convention with the help of UNEP and UNDP is supporting non- annexed countries under its enabling activities. The GoN endorsed the mountain initiatives in May 2010 and organized the International Conference of Mountain Countries on climate Change in Kathmandu in April 2012 (MoEST, 2012). The conference endorsed the Kathmandu call for action on the mountain and climate change, which provides mountains and mountainous countries opportunities to develop and implement action plan at country level. 

Best Regards!

Amit Dahit