(Final list prepared by group 23)
Based on our review of the criteria used to judge the environmental performance of cities in Asia and the EU, each student has worked with his/her group members to develop this list of criteria to judge the green urban environments proposed in this GRUEN project.
Green city what we believe is a city designed with consideration for social, economic, environmental impact and ideal habitat for existing population, without compromising the needs of future generations.
Urban areas around the world are trying to lessen their environmental impacts by reducing waste, expanding recycling, lowering emissions, creating green urban spaces and urban vertical development and encouraging the development of sustainable local businesses.
Our group has formed a list of criteria that should be used to judge the green urban environments.
The City should follow the concept of
*A Circular Economy*
Circular economy is a system of resource utilisation where reduction, reuse, and recycling of elements prevails. It presents the opportunity to fundamentally address how we can create value in our economies and minimise liabilities that they create, hallmark of a green and inclusive economy. The sole objective is to produce goods and services in a sustainable way, by limiting the consumption and waste of resources as well as production of waste.
Thus, circular economy is the most practical solution to the worlds emerging resource crisis.
One of the prime ways by which we can apply this idea is by ‘Generating Renewable Energy’.Renewable energy is energy collected from renewable resources, which are naturally replenished on a human timescale, such as sunlight, wind, rain, tides, waves, and geothermal heat.Renewable energy often provides energy in four important areas: electricity generation, air and water heating/cooling, transportation, and rural energy services.For this process ,we can make use of Solar Panel ,gather energy generated from gym equipments, etc.
The following benefits can be seen in a circular economy-
• Reduction of pressure on natural resources
• Boosting economic growth
• Continual use of resources
• Minimum waste generation
The City should follow the concept of
It is a path of economic growth that uses natural resources in a sustainable manner. It is used globally to provide an alternative concept to typical industrial economic growth. This path would lead to what is known as a green economy.
The following factors show be taken into consideration under this criteria-
• Enhancing productivity by creating incentives for greater efficiency in the use of natural resources, reducing waste and energy consumption, unlocking opportunities for innovation and value creation, and allocating resources to the highest value use.For example, strict building codes can be developed that favour green technology.
• Preservation of Natural Capital, with the efficiency in the use of resources.
• Concept of Urban Green Spaces can be introduced. Green spaces such as parks and sports
fields as well as woods and natural meadows, wetlands or other ecosystems, represent a fundamental component of any urban ecosystem. Green urban areas facilitate physical activity and relaxation, and form a refuge from noise. Trees produce oxygen, and help filter out harmful air pollution, including airborne particulate matter. Water spots, from lakes to rivers and fountains, moderate temperatures.
• Boosting investor confidence through greater predictability in how governments deal with major environmental issues.
• Opening up new markets by stimulating demand for green goods, services and technologies.
• Contributing to fiscal consolidation by mobilising revenues through green taxes and through
the elimination of environmentally harmful subsidies. These measures can also help to generate or free up resources for anti-poverty programmes in such areas as water supply and sanitation, or other pro-poor investments.
• Reducing risks of negative shocks to growth due to resource bottlenecks, as well as damaging and potentially irreversible environmental impacts.
• Strategies for greener growth need to be tailored to fit specific city/country circumstances. They will need to carefully consider how to manage any potential trade-offs and best exploit the synergies between green growth and poverty reduction
• Low carbon emission and technologies
• Increased energy efficiency and security
• Reduction in greenhouse emission
• Development of local inclusive economy with low environmental impact
There are a few systems that can help in the development of this idea:
• System of Water Producing Billboard - Water-producing billboard designed to inspire. The University of Engineering and Technology (UTEC) in Lima, Peru has partnered with advertising agency MAYO-DRAFT FCB to create an advertising billboard that grabs moisture from the desert air and converts it into filtered drinking water.
• System of Waternets - Smart water management models use sensors in network pipes to monitor flow and manage the entire water cycle, providing sustainable water for human and ecological needs. Companies such as TaKaDu, based in Israel, are creating cloud-based solutions to connect water pipes to the Internet of Things, enabling a proactive approach to flood control and rainwater collection, and the identification of weak points or blockages in the network before major damage occurs.
The City should follow the concept of
*Carbon Footprint *
It is defined as the total amount of greenhouse gases produced to directly and indirectly support human activities, usually expressed in equivalent tons of carbon dioxide (CO2).
The following factors play role under this criteria-
• Shift to sustainable practices
• Use of renewable energy
• Sustainable transportation facilities put to use
• Conservation and preservation of natural resources and biodiversity
• Implementation of accessible Public Transport System
For example, System of Supertrees
Singapore's National Parks Board that sees the cultivation of flora and fauna from foreign lands. The man-made mechanical forest consists of 18 supertrees that act as vertical gardens, generating solar power, acting as air venting ducts for nearby conservatories, and collecting rainwater. To generate electricity, 11 of the supertrees are fit with solar photovoltaic systems that convert sunlight into energy, which provides lighting and aids water technology within the conservatories below.
The City should have
*Urban Renewal Actions on a regular basis*
Urban renewal refers to special local development actions and programs aimed at rehabilitating certain urban areas to improve the living environment. More recently, the term has also come to cover the general objectives of higher social inclusion and sustainable development.
In layman language it is a program of land redevelopment often used to address urban decay in cities. Urban renewal is the clearing out of blighted areas in inner cities to clear out slums and create opportunities for higher class housing, businesses, and more. A primary purpose of urban renewal is to restore economic viability to a given area by attracting external private and public investment and by encouraging business start-ups and survival.
It involves overhaul the congestion in the city centres. It comprises a number of strategies which include: filtration; social planning; the boot-strap strategy; replacement; and guiding urban growth through investment and conservation and heritage preservation. Replenished housing stock might be an improvement in quality; it may increase density and reduce sprawl; it might have economic benefits and improve the global economic competitiveness of a city's centre. It may, in some instances, improve cultural and social amenity, and it may also improve opportunities for safety and surveillance. Developments such as London Docklands increased tax revenues for government. In late 1964, the British commentator Neil Wates expressed the opinion that urban renewal in the United States had 'demonstrated the tremendous advantages which flow from an urban renewal programme,' such as remedying the 'personal problems' of the poor, creation or renovation of housing stock, educational and cultural 'opportunities'. In the United States successful urban redevelopment projects tend to revitalise downtown areas.
The cities should have *Modern Farming Methods*
In an agricultural based country, like India,China and Brazil, Modern Farming Methods play a major role.
It refers the agricultural production system characterised by the high inputs of capital, labour, heavy usage of farm machinery such as threshers, harvesters, winnowing machine, heavy usage of technology such as selective breeding, pesticides, chemical fertilisers and insecticides.
Farming and agriculture has existed for as long as the human race have been living on this planet, and in many ways it has evolved alongside us. For the longest time, the food we ate and the clothes we wore were completely dependent on agriculture, and though we now have other means of clothing ourselves beyond using the skin of animals, we have yet to find a way of sourcing food other than farming.
The reason modern farming practices are so important is that without them farmers would never be able to supply the demand for food that is called for by the general population. This is not a national issue cause by immigration, as some would have you believe, but an international one caused by the fact that the population of the entire world as increased by over one billion people since the year 2000.
It has been stipulated that for this rate of population growth to continue, every couple would need to have 3 children or more. But whether the population continues to grow at this rate or not, if farmers are going to meet the demand for food – both current and future – farming methods have to be efficient. Fortunately for us, efficiency is just one of the benefits of modern farming practices.
Thanks to modern farming practices, in the last 50 years the amount of crops such as rice and wheat has dramatically increased. As a matter of fact, thanks to the tireless work of the agricultural community, primary crop yields have managed, more or less, to grow at the same rate as the population; and due to advancements in agricultural practices, the price of basic food stuffs dropped also, thereby ensuring that less people had to go hungry.
One of the most important factors that farmers rely on to grow their crops is irrigation, and it is only by establishing large irrigation networks that agriculturalists have been able to achieve these amazing feats. But that is not to say that other technologies and scientific advancements have not built on these solid foundations. Tractors and other agricultural vehicles, for example, are always being improved and have made jobs that once would have taken weeks take days – which is why it is important for farmers to keep their tractors in top working order.
Improvements made to transportation and storage have had an incredible impact on the output of farms, as they have allowed us to reduce wastage and spend less time on any one task. What's more, thanks to the internet and online databases, it is possible for farmers to utilise scientific data and technology in an attempt to improve crop yields and keep up to date with cutting edge methods of farming.
For instance, there is now technology available that allows farmers to analyse soil, determine what is lacking, and replace it. This will ensure that the seeds planted in the soil have the best chance of yielding a high quality crop, not just in terms of quality, but in quantity too. Crop protection is another area of modern farming that has improved yields, and there is still research being done in order to find new, safer ways to protect crops from insects and disease.
In 2014 there was a study published that suggested if we were to rely solely on our own production capacity for a year, the UK would run out of food by August. Without the benefits of modern farming practices there is no doubt that we would run out much earlier, and we should never forget that it is only because of research done internationally, and with the help of the agricultural community at large, that we have been able to reach this level of efficiency.
Urban and local populations interact with their environment. They change their environment through their consumption of food, energy, water, and land. And in turn, the polluted urban environment affects the health and quality of life of the urban population.We can stop this by spreading awareness and making our cities eco-friendly and sustainable.